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Dhumavati personifies the dark side of life. We know from our own experience that life can be exhilarating, joyful, and pleasant—something we want to embrace and live to the fullest. But at other times we find that this same life can be depressing, sorrowful, painful, and frustrating. At such moments we respond with pessimism, sadness, anxiety, or anger. It is then that we no longer want to embrace life but rather to avoid its misery.
This is where Dhumavati comes in. Her name means “she who is made of smoke.” Smoke is one of the effects of fire. It is dark and polluting and concealing; it is emblematic of the worst facets of human existence. The concepts embodied in Dhumavati are very ancient, and they have to do with keeping life’s inevitable suffering at bay. Before there was the Mahavidya named Dhumavati, there were three earlier goddesses who were her prototypes. They are closely related to each other and have many characteristics in common. They share many of these same characteristics with Dhumavati as well, but with her there is also an important difference.
Dhumavati’s oldest prototype is the goddess Nirriti in the RIgveda. The early seers envisioned a principle of cosmic order and universal moral law that they called rita. The moral dimension of rita later came to be called dharma. The name Nirriti is a negation ofrita. Whereas rita denotes order, growth, abundance, prosperity, harmony, well-being, and the goodness of life, Nirriti is the opposite. She personifies disorder, decay, poverty, misfortune, dissension, sickness, and the whole range of life’s ills, culminating in death. Nirriti was not worshiped in the same sense as other Vedic deities; rather she was ritually appeased so as to be warded off. In the Rigvedic hymn that mentions her (10.59) the refrain is, “Let Nirriti depart to distant places.” The idea was to keep her far away.
Closely related to Nirriti is Jyeshtha, whose name means “the elder.” She represents the state of decline that comes with old age, and naturally she is depicted as an old woman. She is instinctively drawn to households in which there is strife—where family members quarrel or where the adults feed themselves and disregard the hunger of their children. It is probable that she, like Nirriti, was propitiated to keep her at a safe distance.
One of Jyeshtha’s epithets is Alakshmi, This name indicates that she is everything that Lakshmi is not. She is Lakshmi’s dark mirror image. The Candi informs us that it is Alakshmi who visits misfortune upon the homes of the unrighteousness. She stands for poverty and bad luck and all the miserable things that can happen to people.
All three of these names refer to an inauspicious goddess who is portrayed as dark-skinned, signifying her tamasic nature. It is clear that she is the prototype of the Mahavidya Dhumavati, because of the striking similarities not only of character but also of iconography.
A common feature is the association with a crow. The crow sometimes appears emblazoned on Dhumavati’s banner; sometimes it sits atop the banner. Occasionally the bird is shown as huge, serving as her mount (vahana). In some illustrations a flock of crows accompanies her. In any case the crow, as an eater of carrion, symbolizes death. It is a fitting companion for a goddess of misfortune, decay, destruction, and loss.
Dhumavati, like her prototypes, is associated with poverty, need, hunger, thirst, quarrelsomeness, anger, and negativity. She is consistently shown as old and ugly, with sagging breasts and crooked or missing teeth. She is dressed in filthy rags. We can draw two inferences here. One is that the unpleasant experiences of life will eventually engender a sense of disgust that will turn us toward the Divine. The other is that the Divine is present everywhere, even in what we ordinarily consider foul or ugly. How can there be a place where the infinite Mother is not?
Unlike her predecessors, Dhumavati is characterized as a widow, and this gives a clue to her unique nature as a Mahavidya and distinguishes her from the earlier goddesses, who are to be avoided. The difference is that Dhumavati has some positive aspects.
The state of widowhood in Indian society carries a range of complexities. Conventionally widowhood is an unenviable state. Without her husband, a widow has lost her former social standing and may come to be viewed as a financial burden on the extended family. This is symbolized by the cart in which Dhumavati sits; it has nothing to pull it. Occasionally an illustration shows two birds yoked to the cart, but far from expressing empowerment, they appear to be struggling against something too big and to heavy to pull.
In the context of traditional Indian society, the fact that widows can be socially marginalized can also indicate that for them the worldly concerns of life are past. Widows are free to follow a spiritual path, to go on pilgrimages, and to engage in sadhana that would have been impossible during the years of family obligations. No longer constrained by the demands of the married state, they are in a position to apply themselves wholeheartedly to spiritual practice. There is an implied parallel here between the enforced position of widowhood and the voluntary state of renunciation known as samnyasa.
Apart from the specific conditions and observances of traditional Hindu society, is there any broader lesson we can extract that is relevant to our experience? Since the Mahavidyas are all taken to be wisdom goddesses, intent on helping us toward enlightenment, there should be some practical insight that Dhumavati can impart.
A primary lesson is that misfortune may look different in retrospect. It is universally acknowledged that something that seemed painful or unfortunate at the time might have been for the best after all, in short a blessing in disguise. Most of us need look no further than our own lives or the lives of people we know for examples of disappointments, misfortunes, frustrations, defeats, or losses that led to positive transformation. Similarly, adversity can build character and turn an ordinary soul into an extraordinary one.
Another lesson is that with the ticking of the clock we inevitably face losses of one sort or another, and we must come to terms with them. Dhumavati represents the erosive power of time that robs us of loved ones, of our own youthful strength and vitality, of our health, and of whatever else contributes to our fragile happiness. Everything that we so desperately cling to for security is by nature transient. In the end we all face our own mortality. That is the fundamental problem of human existence.
The image of Dhumavati, old and ugly and alone and miserable in her cart of disempowerment, tells us what to do. The lesson is to cultivate a sense of detachment. Note that Dhumavati holds a bowl of fire in one hand and a winnowing basket in the other. The fire symbolizes inevitable cosmic destruction: all things shall pass away. The winnowing basket, used to separate grain from chaff, represents viveka, mental discrimination between the permanent and the fleeting. Even though her stalled cart represents an external life going nowhere, Dhumavati empowers us inwardly to reach for the highest, and there is nothing to stop us once we are resolved. In the end, she points the way to liberation.
The name Bhairavi means “frightful,” “terrible,” “horrible,” or “formidable.” The basic idea here is fear. Ordinarily we associate fear with darkness. It is not uncommon to be afraid of the dark, or rather of the dangers that lurk there unseen, but that is not the sort of fear that Bhairavi provokes, for she is said to shine with the effulgence of ten thousand rising suns.
Bhairavi may be terrifying, but she is anything but dark. If this is puzzling at first, we need to find another example where brilliant light and terror meet face to face. That example is found in the eleventh chapter of the Bhagavadgita. Arjuna had been urging Sri Krishna to reveal himself in his supreme, universal form, but when Krishna complied and Arjuna beheld it, the experience was too much for him. The Gita describes the divine glory as the splendor of a thousand suns rising at once in the sky. In that blazing radiance Arjuna beheld the boundless form of the Divine with arms, eyes, mouths, and bellies without end. Arjuna saw gods and celestial beings and whole worlds looking on with dread and wonder, some praising, some trembling in fear. On every side he saw worlds disappearing into fiery mouths, like moths hurtling into the flames of their destruction. In this overwhelming experience of the Divine, Arjuna came face to face with the birthless, deathless, infinite reality in which universes are born, subsist, and die. He was so struck with terror that he begged to see his beloved Krishna once again his familiar, gentle human form.
This experience of Lord Visnu’s universal form, his visvarupa, closely parallels the experience of the Divine Mother as Bhairavi. Just as Visnu’s forms range from the cosmic to the personal, so do Bhairavi’s. Reality is One, but it appears to us as many. We can think of Bhairavi in cosmic terms or in an individualistic sense. As a cosmic goddess Bhairavi is closely identified with Durga in her fierce form, known as Candika. Because Durga presides over the birth, sustenance, and death of the universe, she projects three primary facets, called Mahakali, Mahalakshmi, and Mahasarasvati. These extremely subtle and immeasurably powerful aspects of consciousness manifest on the material level as the three gunas, the basic building blocks and driving energies of the universe.
In her individualized aspect, Bhairavi is the power of consciousness dwelling in every human being. Then she is known as Kundalini. Basic to both the cosmic and individual aspects is identification of Bhairavi with tremendous power. In other words, in either aspect she can appear as overwhelming.
The innate capacity to know—to experience—the Divine lies latent within every human being, and spiritual life unfolds through various stages of discovery. When we set out on the spiritual path, we start our seeking by making a conscious effort of some sort, but then what we find isn’t necessarily what we expected. If we have not sufficiently prepared ourselves to receive it, the light of spiritual knowledge may blaze so strongly that we may have all of our familiar and comfortable assumptions about the world and ourselves suddenly shattered. We may have our world stood on its head, and for a while we may lose our bearings. But the extraordinary nature of spiritual discovery is that it causes us to see the world in a new light and to have a different relationship with it.
Though Bhairavi can be disconcerting or even downright frightening, she is in the end beneficent. Again, we are reminded that she is the color of fire, and what does fire do? At the physical level it burns. Its blaze of heat and light consumes whatever has form, and in this awesome manifestation of destructive power it is both magnificent and terrifying. Yet when controlled, fire can be beneficial, warming us when we are cold, cooking our food, and so on.
Fire as the light of consciousness likewise can be frightening or reassuring. This light of consciousness is sometimes called tejas, which means “resplendence.” It is through the light of awareness that we have knowledge of the world, that we experience our own existence, for better or for worse.
Another word frequently encountered in connection with fire is tapas. This is often translated as “austerity,” “mortification,” or “penance,” but all those words carry negative connotations. A more accurate translation would be ardor. Ardor is also the Latin word for flame, and along with the idea of heat and light it conveys the idea of enthusiasm, passion, and joy. In order to practice tapas, that self-purifying discipline that leads us Godward, we need that encouragement. According to one account, Bhairavi incites every form of passion, and she also grants the power to control it. That power is called yoga.
In the Mahabharata (12.250.4) Vyasa defines the highest tapas precisely as “fixing the mind and perceptive faculties one-pointedly on a single object, the indwelling Self. Vyasa’s definition of tapas is not all that different from Patanjali’s definition of yoga as“the restraint of activity within one’s own awareness” (cittavrittinirodha). It is easy to understand how tapas can be conceived of as “self-restraint,” “concentration,” or “meditation.” As we practice tapas, this metaphorical fire burns away all the impurities, limitations, and illusions of our small, ego-based self and prepares us for enlightenment. Even so, most of us harbor the fear of losing our cherished individuality; we cling to our small and imperfect selfhood out of fear. But little by little we progress. Because Bhairavi is so powerful, we must proceed with due caution. She dwells in each of as Kundalini, but we must not force her to rise, lest we harm ourselves. The best tapas is not any esoteric practice but simply the repeated attempts to rein in the mind and direct it toward the Divine. The rest will take care of itself.
Each of the Mahavidyas has more than one form. Most have a variety of representations and a proliferation of names, but none can claim as many as Bhairavi. Accordingly her images are widely divergent, and there is no single iconography to define her. Sometimes she is in the cremation ground, seated on a headless corpse. Like Kali, she has four arms. With two of her hands she holds the sword of knowledge and the demon’s head that represents the destruction of the ego. Her other two hands may display the abhayamudra, urging us to have no fear, and the varadamudra, the gesture of granting boons. More often they hold a mala, signifying devotion, and a book, signifying knowledge. The trident represents the pervasively threefold nature of her manifestation and can be interpreted in a variety of ways.
It is often said that Bhairavi represents divine wrath, but it is only an impulse of her fierce, maternal protectiveness, aimed at the destruction of ignorance and everything negative that keeps us in bondage. In that aspect she is called Sakalasiddhibhairavi, the granter of every perfection.
It is the Mother’s light that shines on every facet of our existence, making it knowable. That light sustains the created order, even though we find shadows here and there in this realm of duality. When the light grows stronger it roots out darkness from every corner. It eventually grows so bright that the created forms dissolve into pure radiance, and what remains is the state of spiritual illumination in which we have no more individuality, no more limitation—only our identification with the Infinite.
(“she who is decapitated”) is a form of the Divine Mother shown as having cut off her own head. The blood that spurts from her neck flows in three streams—one into her own mouth and the others into the mouths of her two female attendants, Dakini and Varnini. At the same time, Chinnamasta she stands on the body of another female figure who is copulating with a male who lies beneath her.
This image may be shocking at first, but in fact it symbolizes sublime spiritual truths, and each feature of the iconography has an important point to make.
Several interpretations are given to the significance of the severed head. First, the head contains the mouth, which is the organ of language or sound. Speech (vak) or sound (sabda) is creative energy (sakti). The RIgveda notes that in the beginning, speech (vak) was coextensive with Brahman (10.114.8). The Sathapathabrahmana calls vak the unborn one from whom the maker of the universe produces creatures. In nondualistic Tantric teaching, consciousness and the power of consciousness are one and the same reality. The creative power of consciousness by which the universe becomes manifest is represented by the garlands of skulls that Chinnamasta and her two female attendants wear. Such a garland is called varnamala, a garland of letters, for each skull represents a sound of the Sanskrit alphabet. Far from being a symbol of death, the garland of skulls is in truth a symbol of divine creativity.
The head is also the part of the body associated with identity. There are stories in Indian tradition of transposed heads, in which the identity of the person goes with the head and not with the rest of the body. The severed head, iconographically, symbolizes liberation. Each person’s individual identity is a state of conditioning or limitation, dependent on qualities. By severing the head, the Mother reveals herself in her true being, which is unconditioned, infinite, and boundlessly free. This idea of freedom is reinforced by her nudity, which symbolizes that she cannot be covered or contained by any garment. Because she is infinite, she is also autonomous.
Chinnamasta wears an unusual sacred thread in the form of a serpent. In stead of being a symbol of Brahmanical orthodoxy, this peculiar sacred thread indicates the opposite: she stands outside of the normal rules of society and pious obligation. Also, because the serpent sloughs off its skin (its outer appearance) without dying, it symbolizes immortality and imperishability.
Chinnamasta stands on the copulating couple, Kama and Rati. The name Kama here refers specifically to sexual desire; Rati means sexual union. The female, Rati, lies on top, in the same way that Kali is shown as the dominant partner with Siva. At the highest level, the feminine principle (Sakti) is consciousness in its active mode—projecting, sustaining, and dissolving the creation; the masculine principle (Siva) is the inactive ground of all existence, the eternally changeless light of awareness. To repeat the Tantric formula, without Siva Sakti would have no being, and without Sakti Siva would have no expression. Kama and Rati symbolize that same principle. They are usually shown lying on a lotus, although sometimes on a cremation pyre.
There are two interpretations of Chinnamasta’s relationship with Kama and Rati. One holds that she because she stands on top of them, she has overcome sexual desire. This is the more common interpretation, and one that places a practical ideal before the spiritual aspirant. Here Chinnamastarepresents self-control and the turning of the mind away from the flesh and back toward the spirit.
The other interpretation, which complements the first, has a cosmic dimension. It takes the copulative act to represent the divine creative capacity. In the Taittiriyopanishad we read that Brahman, seeing itself alone, desired (akamayata) to be many, to propagate (bahu syam prajayeyeti) (2.6.1). In commentaries on the Svetasvataropanishad (1.4) desire (kama) is also identified as the single cause of the cosmic manifestation. Thus, the Divine Mother wields absolute power. She has the freedom to manifest, or not to, as she so chooses. She controls her own desire and her own creative power. From this cosmic point of view, Chinnamasta has power over the creative urge; if she wishes to express it in the form of the universe, she is free to do so; if she wishes to suppress the manifestation, she may do that also.
Each of these activities is a phase in the overall scheme of issuing forth (pravritti) and reabsorbing (nivritti); the two are the complementary halves of a single process, which is called spanda, the eternal pulsation of consciousness.
The two goddesses who attend Chinnamasta play a role in the life of the cosmos. Dakini, on the left, is black; Varnini, on the right, is red. Chinnamasta, in the middle, is white. Black, red, and white represent the three gunas, or basic universal energies. Sattva,symbolized by Chinnamasta’s whiteness, is the highest of the gunas, of course, but all three belong to prakriti, the principle of materiality on which all nature rests. Nothing exists apart from the Mother, whose power of diversification takes form as the grand display of the universe.
The blood spurting from Chinnamasta’s neck represents the life force (prana) or cosmic energy that animates the universe and sustains all life. The first stream flows into Chinnamasta’s own mouth. She is self-existent and dependent on no other. The streams that flow into the mouths of her attendants represent the life-force in all living creatures. All life is nourished by the Mother. In another interpretation, the three streams represent the flow of consciousness through the ida, the pingala, and the susumna, associated in turn with the Dakini on the left, Varnini on the right, and Chinnamasta in the middle. Gaining mastery over the flow of one’s own awareness through yogic practice leads to the experience of the supreme Self.
In line with this interpretation, Kama and Rati represent the kundalini that has been aroused. As it travels upward along the susumna, it cuts through the various knots of ignorance. When it reaches the sahasrara, the force has grown so strong that the head can no longer contain it. The head “blows off,” and as it is shown resting in Chinnamasta’s left hand, it represents the state of transcendental consciousness.
Chinnamasta’s symbolism relates overwhelmingly to ridding ourselves of wrong ideas and the limitations imposed on us by ignorance of our true nature. Despite the violence of the imagery, it is important to note that Chinnamasta does not die; she is very much alive. The message here is that the Self is indestructible (akshara) and eternal (nitya) by its very nature (svabhav).
In practical terms, if the act of decapitation is viewed as an act of self-sacrifice, then the message for us is that selfless acts will not hurt us. To the contrary, any selfless act will indeed diminish the ego, but what is the ego? Only the wall of separation, limitation, and ignorance that keeps us imprisoned by our own false sense of who we are. Chinnamasta, then, in the act of self-decapitation by the sacrificial knife urges us to relinquish a smaller, powerless identity for one that is infinitely greater and all-powerful. To be rid of the ego is to cast off the veil of maya.
Tripurasundari is sometimes spoken of as an adimahavidya, or primordial wisdom goddess, which puts her in the company of Kali and Tara as representing one of the highest experiences of reality. She is not the ultimate, absolute, or nirguna state devoid of all qualities; still, she represents the experience of consciousness in a high state of divine universality.
Her other names include Sodasi, Lalita, Kamesvari, Srividya, and Rajarajesvari. Each of these emphasizes a particular quality or function.
According to the description in her dhyanamantra, Tripurasundari’s complexion shines with the light of the rising sun. This rosy color represents joy, compassion, and illumination.
Tripurasundari has four arms, and in her four hands she holds a noose, a goad, a bow, and five arrows. The noose indicates the captivating power of beauty. The goad represents the ability to dissociate from ego-based attachment. The bow represents the mind (manas), and in this case it is no ordinary bow but one made of sugarcane. The five arrows, representing the five sensory faculties (jnanendriyas), are made of flowers. In other words, what we perceive and cognize is by nature good, sweet, juicy, and delightful. The world is a place of beauty, to be savored and enjoyed. To reinforce that idea, a profusion of jeweled ornaments adorns Tripurasundari’s body, symbolizing not only her splendor but also her inexhaustible abundance.
Tripurasundari is often shown sitting on the recumbent body of Siva, who rests on a throne. Siva is the absolute consciousness-in-itself, the sole reality and support of everything that has name and form. On that sole support sits Tripurasundari, who is Sakti. This is a graphic illustration of the great Tantric teaching that without Siva Sakti would have no being, and without Sakti Siva would have no expression. Consciousness and its power are one.
The four legs of Tripurasundari’s throne are the gods Brahma, Visnu, Rudra, and Mahesvara. Brahma is the power of creation or cosmic emanation (srishti); Visnu, of cosmic maintenance (sthiti); Rudra, of destruction, dissolution, or withdrawal (samhara). In a distinctively Tantric addition to this threefold activity, Mahesvara symbolizes the divine power of concealment (nigraha). When the nondual reality makes manifest the finite many, the infinite One becomes hidden from our awareness. Conversely, Siva, in the form of Sadasiva, is the power of self-revelation (anugraha), also known as divine grace. When we go beyond the appearances and division of name and form, we again experience the ineffable divine unity that is our true being. These five deities—Brahma, Visnu, Rudra, Mahesvara, and Sadasiva—represent Tripurasundari’s five divine activities (pancakritya).
In the Sakta Tantra, it is Mother who is supreme, and the gods are her instruments of expression. Through them she presides over the creation, maintenance, and dissolution of the universe, as well as over the self-concealment and self-revelation that lie behind those three activities. Self-concealment is the precondition as well as the result of cosmic manifestation, and self-revelation causes the manifest universe to dissolve, disclosing the essential unity.
With this in mind, the eighteenth-century commentator Bhaskararaya proposed that the name Tripurasundari should be understood as “she whose beauty precedes the three worlds,” meaning that she is divinity in its transcendental glory. However, the name is usually taken in an immanent sense to mean “she who is beautiful in the three worlds.” Present here is the idea of a triad, a grouping of three that plays out in many different aspects of the phenomenal world.
The triangle is the dominant motif of Tripurasundari’s yantra, the Sricakra. The innermost triangle represents the first stirrings of cosmic evolution. This takes place within divine consciousness. Pure, nondual consciousness is aware of nothing other than itself, for there is no other. It is pure subjectivity—the ultimate “I” (aham). As we learn from the Upanishads, the One, seeing itself alone, declares, “Let me be many; let me propagate myself.” Within the pure awareness of “I” (aham) arises the idea of ”this” (idam). Now we have subjectivity and objectivity within the same singular reality of consciousness. And where there are two, there is always a third—the relationship between the two. Hence, the triangle of the knowing subject, the known object, and the act of knowing that relates them.
Tripurasundari represents the state of awareness that is also called the sadasivatattva. It is characterized as “I am this” (aham idam). Cosmic evolution is the outward flow of consciousness (pravritti). Spiritual practice reverses that flow, so for the yogin this stage is a very high level of attainment, close to final realization. It is an experience of the universe within the unity of consciousness. A beautiful expression of this occurs in the Bhagavadgita (6.29): “One who is joined in yoga sees the Self in all beings and all beings in the Self; his is the vision of sameness everywhere” (sarvabhutastham atmanam sarvabhutani catmani / ikshate yogayuktatma sarvatra samadarsanah). In this state a person experiences the same sense of selfhood felt within his or her own heart as pervading everything. This experience of the Self in all beings, called sarvatmabhava, takes one beyond the confines of the individual ego to the realization that “I am all this.” This is the level of awareness known in the Tantra as sadasivatattva. This direct experience of the Divine simultaneously in oneself and throughout the whole of creation results in a feeling of universal love (visvaprema). One who lives in this exalted state of oneness feels no separation from others and therefore becomes a fount of compassion.
Even in our ordinary state of consciousness, Tripurasundari is the beauty that we see in the world around us. Whatever we perceive externally as beautiful resonates deep within. That is the meaning of the flower arrows and the sugarcane bow. Deep within dwells the source of all beauty, that ultimate truth of which the outer world is only a reflection, of which our experience is a recognition. True beauty lies not in the object perceived but in the light of awareness that shines on it and makes it knowable. One who lives mindful of Tripurasundari abides in a purity of consciousness and experiences a joy that can be tangibly savored. Yet if the creation is wonderful, how much more wonderful must be she who created it.
For the unenlightened the world appears imperfect. Perfection is wholeness and unity, but the world appears to be a vast assemblage of diverse parts. The unity of the divine cause is veiled by the multiplicity of its effects. We perceive beauty but feel also the pain of its fleetingness, forgetting that the source of beauty lies indestructible in the heart of our awareness as the Divine Mother, Tripurasundari.
Her sadhana is therefore the purification of our awareness—cleansing the mind of unworthy thoughts and the patterns of thinking that underlie them, recognizing beauty everywhere, seeing the miraculous in the commonplace, and rising to the conviction that nothing is alien to ourselves. As the Upanishads teach, “All this universe is truly Brahman” (sarvam khalv idam brahma); so too is this Self (ayam atma brahma).
The fourth Mahavidya is Bhuvanesvari, whose form closely resembles that of Tripurasundari. Even more than the goddess who is beautiful in the three worlds or transcends them, Bhuvanesvari is identified with the manifest world and our experience of it.
Her name consists of two elements: bhuvana, which means this living world—a place of dynamic activity—and isvari, which means the female ruler or sovereign. The name Bhuvanesvari is most often translated as “Mistress of the World,” but bhuvana is more than the earth we stand upon. It is the entire cosmos, the bhuvanatraya, consisting of the heavens, the atmosphere, and the earth. Because this is a living, dynamic phenomenon, Bhuvanesvari embodies all its characteristics and their interactions.
Some of her other names make this same point. She is called Mahamaya (“she whose magical power is great”). Maya here is the power to create a magical appearance for the delight of the spectator; that is what a magician does. She is called Sarvarupa (“she whose form is all”) and Visvarupa (“she whose form is the universe” or “she who appears as the universe”). All that we experience in this life is in fact the Divine Mother. As Bhuvanesvari she is consistently associated with the here and now.
Her images closely resemble those of Tripurasundari in several respects. Bhuvanesvari’s complexion resembles the color of the rising sun; she wears the crescent moon on her brow, and she is heavily bejeweled. This last feature affirms the value of the physical world. Sometimes she is shown holding a jeweled drinking cup filled to the brim with gemstones, reminding us that she is the source of all abundance.
The lotus on which she sits tells us that she is the source of the creation. Her full breasts symbolize her nurturing, maternal nature. As Mother she sustains all that she has given birth to, and her attitude toward all her children is most gracious.
This world, with its profusion of diversity, is her joyful play, to which she remains ever attentive. That is indicated by her three eyes, which represent her knowledge of past, present, and future. Nothing escapes her all-pervading awareness.
Bhuvanesvari is often shown holding a noose and a goad. Sri Ramakrishna used to say that it is Mother who binds and Mother who sets free, and these two implements illustrate her captivating and liberating powers. With her noose she fulfills the functions of avidyamaya, casting us into the confusion by which we mistake appearances for reality. According to another interpretation the noose represents the pancakosa, the five sheathes that surround and conceal the atman. They are the physical body (annamayakosa), its life-breath (pranamayakosa), the perceiving mind (manomayakosa), the determinative faculty (vijnanamayakosa), and the causal sheath or sense of individuality (anandamayakosa). With her goad she pushes us to overcome any hindrances—any passions or negativities or wrong ideas that conceal our true, divine nature. She urges us to reach beyond the limitations of human life drawn by body, mind and personality, and to aspire to true Self-knowledge.
The lotus is one of the most pervasive symbols in Indian iconography and its meaning can vary according to context. Here the lotuses in Bhuvanesvari’s upper hands represent growth and the vigorous energy pervading the cosmos. They also symbolize purity and perfection. Although the lotus plant has its roots in the mud, its blossom is untainted in its beauty. The lotus thus represents the state of spiritual perfection to be attained through sincere and ardent practice. Our ordinary lives may appear mired in worldliness, but we are in essence untouchably pure.
Because Bhuvanesvari is so closely associated with the manifest universe, it follows that the emphasis is on her creative power. As the physical universe begins to emerge out of the void, the first of the five elements (mahabhutas) to manifest is space (akasa). It only makes sense that there would have to be space before the remaining four elements would have a place in which to exist. Space is also the medium of sound, and this sound is none other than the creative word. The two ideas are very closely related. In the RIgveda, which is the most ancient of all Indian sacred texts, space is personified as Aditi, the great mother goddess of early Vedic times. Aditi, whose name means “undivided,” had as her physical symbol the vast, shining expanse of the sky. This space, which appears to stretch on without limit, is a visible symbol of infinity. Aditi, the great mother who gave birth to the gods, and who is all that has been, is, and will be, was also identified with Vak, the goddess of the creative word, who in turn is identified with Sarasvati and later with Durga. Western philosophy recognizes this same concept of creative power as logos. In line with this thinking, another name of Bhuvanesvari is Vagisvari, “the sovereign of the creative word,” who rules over the process of cosmic manifestation.
Along with the idea of space comes the idea of pervasion, and so Bhuvanesvari is celebrated as the all-pervading divine presence. And all-pervading means just that. We think of exterior space as beginning where our physical body ends and then stretching out into the unimaginable reaches of the universe. That is one form of space. But there is also an inner space—the space within our own awareness—and that too is infinite.
The inner space is the space of the heart. The word heart does not refer to the physical organ or even to its location in the chest. Heart means the center of awareness, the very essence of consciousness. For each of us the heart is the abode of the infinite Divine Mother. This means that wherever we go in this world, we are never away from her presence. We may often forget, and most often we do, owing to the myriad distractions which claim our attention and involve our thoughts, feelings, and actions. Still, the light of awareness is ever present, illuminating and making possible all experience. Without the Mother’s presence, there would be nothing.
In a treatise entitled Self-Knowledge (Atmabodha), attributed to Sankaracarya, the penultimate sloka (verse 67) takes up this same theme: “Risen in the space of the heart, the Self, the sun of knowledge, dispels the darkness; all-pervading and all-supporting it shines and causes everything to shine” (hridakasodito hy atma bodhabhanus tamopahrit / sarvavyapi sarvadhari bhati bhasayate ‘khilam).
Practically speaking, Bhuvanesvari, by her all-pervasiveness and identification with the universe, invites us to cultivate an attitude of universality. Any religion that lays claim to possessing the exclusive truth is indulging in a dangerous fantasy. All religions link humankind to a single reality that lies beyond this world of our petty differences yet abides in every heart and mind. Some choose to call this reality God or Heavenly Father or Divine Mother, but in truth he, she, or it is that which cannot be named, for to name is to limit, and who are we to limit the Illimitable? And why? For our own personal comfort or satisfaction, either individually or collectively? Does it serve us better to cling to our own parochial ideas of the Divine and ever to squabble among ourselves? Or to open ourselves to the Infinite, which we can never describe, but which in truth we are.
In the succession of #Mahavidyas, #Tara comes second, immediately after Kali, whom she closely resembles. Just as Kali herself has many different aspects, so does Tara. Tara is prominent both in Tibetan Buddhism and in Tantric hinduism, and her many aspects include forms that are either gentle (saumya) or fierce (ugra). The Hindu Sakta Tantra seems to prefer the fierce forms.
So close are the representations of Tara and Kali that often their identities blur. Of course, divinity is a single reality, and that has been proclaimed from the time of the Rigveda onward: “Truth is one; the wise call it by various names.” The recitations of Kali’s and Tara’s thousand names (sahasranama hymns) have many names in common. Not only that, Ramprasad, in his great devotional songs, used the names Kali and Tara interchangeably.
Images of Tara often show her seated on a white lotus in the midst of the primordial waters that envelop the entire universe. From this we understand that she is the Mother of the three worlds—of the heavens, the atmosphere, and the earth.
Like the common representations of Kali in the form of Dakshinakali, Tara is four-armed and holds a sword in her upper left hand and a severed head in the lower one. The sword symbolizes the power of consciousness to cut away whatever is misleading, divisive, fragmentary. It is called jnanakhadga, the sword of knowledge. Our ordinary awareness is engaged in a constant swirl of perceiving physical objects and formulating subtle objects—the thoughts, ideas, opinions, and concepts that we derive from our perceptual experience. Our unenlightened awareness centers on the idea of individual selfhood conditioned as ego or personality. That ego is represented by the severed head. Through the power of consciousness to reveal the true Self, to let us know who and what we truly are, the Divine Mother uses her sword to cut away the limiting ego. She who causes all our mistaken ideas of who we are, along with false notions of our imperfections, inadequacies, and limitations, is also she who frees us from the bondage of that conditioning. Once freed, we experience our own true being—identity with the unconditioned Infinite.
In her upper right hand Tara wields a pair of scissors, which symbolize the same cutting action as the sword; in particular they represent the ability to cut off attachments. Her lower right hand is often shown holding a blue lotus, said to represent her open heart.
Tara is bejeweled, signifying her beauty and infinite wealth. There is nothing lacking, for she is absolute perfection. Her complexion is dark blue like the night sky. That also signifies her boundlessness.
Not only is she infinite; she is all-knowing. Her three eyes signify the knowledge of past, present, and future.
Unlike Kali, whose hair flows loose and wild, Tara wears hers in a carefully coiffed topknot (jata). Whereas Kali’s hair represents absolute freedom from constraint, Tara’s is a symbol of yogic asceticism—that is to say, of the yogic ability to manage and direct the movement of the mind, to achieve Self-knowledge through self-mastery.
Her tongue is in constant motion, framed by fearsome teeth and a mouth that appears terrible. Like Kali, she is all-devouring, unrelenting time.
She wears a tiger-skin around her waist. This is a symbol of her liminal character—she stands as the edge of civilized order. She can be wild and uncontrolled. She is uncircumscribed—nothing, including the laws of human society, can contain her. Still, this minimal clothing, some say, shows that she represents either the last stage before liberation or the first stage of cosmic emanation. She is not completely naked like Kali, whose utter lack of clothing symbolizes infinitude and total freedom.
A nimbus or halo of light surrounds her head, signifying her glory. Rising above it is the ten-headed serpent Akshobhya, who represents Siva-consciousness—a state utterly free of agitation—consciousness in a state of rest (visranti), the state of absolute being-awareness-bliss (saccidananda). This is the ultimate reality as well as the Mother’s own true nature (svasvarupa) and ours. Patanjali says the same thing in the Yogasutra (1.2), where he defines yoga as the cessation of all activity within the individualized field of awareness (yogas cittavrittinirodhah). When consciousness ceases its activity, it ceases to be modified and conditioned as thought-waves (vritti). These thought-waves are the projections and the contents of consciousness. In the stillness only pure awareness remains, the experience of undivided, nondual wholeness.
Tara sits on the body of Lord Siva, who lies motionless beneath her. This can be interpreted in more than one way. It can mean that Mother is supreme, but it can also indicate the mutual necessity of her relationship with Siva. He is the foundation which supports her, and she is the dynamism that makes possible the play of the universe. Siva and Sakti are not only mutually dependent—they are a single reality. Consciousness and its power are not just inseparable; they are identical. Without Siva Sakti would have no being, and without Sakti Siva would have no expression.
The serpent Akshobhya reinforces this point. Mother, in her supreme glory, is identical to Siva—consciousness-in-itself, motionless and unperturbed, the eternal, self-luminous reality. The meaning of this symbol affirms Tara’s closeness to Kali, who heads the list of the Mahavidyas. Kali represents the highest form of wisdom or liberating knowledge, and Tara, in her own way, represents a close second. It is possible to read the serpent Akshobhya as a symbol of the human’s innate capacity for enlightenment, and Tara herself as the penultimate stage in the process of enlightenment, which is in fact the dissolution of the human ego.
Both Kali and Tara are strongly associated with death and dissolution. Whereas Kali is often said to be the power of time (kala) that inexorably causes all created things to perish, Tara is more often associated with fire, and particularly the fires of the cremation ground. One of her names is Smasanabhairavi, “the terrible one of the cremation ground.” It is important to remember that fire represents not only destruction but also purification and transformation.
Much of Tara’s symbolism can be related to death—but in its broadest perspective. The death it refers to is the death of the ego, the false idea of selfhood that keeps the individual in bondage, ever reactive and in thralldom to all of life’s ups and downs. Like Kali, Tara is sometimes shown wearing a girdle of severed human arms, a symbol of her ability to relieve us of the burdens of karma. The scissors and sword, rather than being understood as agents of death, should be thought of as tools to dismantle and remove the ego, the sense of mistaken identity that defines, limits, and binds.
Tara’s name is derived from tri, which means “to cross.” One of her epithets is Samsaratarini, “she who takes across the ocean of worldly existence.”Tara is thus the all-gracious liberator.
Added to all this, the figure of Tara also embodies maternal tenderness. Her mother’s love is unconditional, and her liberating mantra is given freely to all.
#Kali. Seated on a corpse, greatly terrifying, laughing loudly, with fearful fangs, four arms holding a cleaver, a skull, and giving the mudras bestowing boons and dispelling fear, wearing a garland of skulls, her tongue rolling wildly, completely naked (digambara – clad in the directions), thus one should meditate on Kali, dwelling in the centre of the cremation ground. The Kali Mantra as given in the Mantra Mahodadhi is: “Kreem Kreem Kreem Hum Hum Hreem Hreem Dakshine Kaalika Kreem Kreem Kreem Hum Hum Hreem Hreem Swaha” (dyanam, nyasam and also other kali manthram, (everything do with your gurus instruction) It bestows the eight supernatural powers. The Kali Tantra gives details of the puja of Kalika:- “Now I speak of the ritual injunction which is the all-nectar-giver of the Devi. Doing this, a person becomes like Bhairava. “Firstly, I speak of yantra, the knowing of which conquers death. At first draw a triangle. Outside, draw another. Then draw three more triangles. “Draw a circle and then a beautiful lotus. Then draw another circle and then a bhupura with four lines and four doors. This is how the cakra should be drawn. “Worship the guru line, the six limbs, and the dikpalas (The eight, or according to some, ten guardians of the directions, ed.). Then the mantrin should place his head at the feet of the guru. “O dearest one, after worshipping the pedestal, set down the offering. Place the mantra in the six limbs. Then, within the heart lotus, the ultimate Kala blossoms. “Place her in the centre of the yantra by invoking her (via the breath). After meditating on the great goddess, dedicate the ritual offerings. Bow to Mahadevi and then worship the surrounding deities. “Worship Kali, Kapalini, Kulla, Kurukulla, Virodhini, Vipracitta in the six angles. Then Ugra, Ugraprabha, Dipta in the middle. Then Nila, Ghana and Balaka in the inner angle. Then Matra, Mudra and Mita within this triangle, and then the very dusky one holding the sword, adorned with human skulls, with her left hand showing the threatening mudra and having a pure smile. “Worship the eight mothers Brahmi, Narayani, Maheshvari, Chamunda, Kaumari, Aparajita, Varahi and Narasimhi. “In equal shares, give these devis animal sacrifice and worship them, smearing them with scent and offering incense and flame. After doing the puja, worship using the root mantra. “Give food and so forth to the Devi again and again. The sadhaka should offer flame ten times. So also he should offer flower with mantra according to the rules of ritual. “After meditating on Devi, recite the mantra 1,008 times. The fruit of reciting, which is light, place in the hands of the Devi. Then, placing the flower on the head, do prostration. With supreme devotion, then rub out (the yantra)( The tantrik worship of these most powerful Vidyas must be practiced only under the guidence of a Guru.)
Kali sahasranamavali(with litaral meaning)
1] Smasanakalika : She who is the Remover of Darkness from the
Cremation Grounds or from Death
2] Kali: She who is the Remover of Darkness.
3] Bhadrakali : She who is the Excellent Remover of Darkness.
4] Kapalini : She who is the Bearer of the Skulls of Impurity
5] Guhyakali : She who is the Hidden or Secretive Remover of Darkness.
6] MahaKali : She who is the Great Remover of Darkness.
7] Kurukullavirodhini : She who confronts the Forces of Duality.
8] Kalika : She who is the cause of Removing darkness
9] Kalaratrisca : She who is the Dark Night of Egotism
10] Mahakalanitambini : She who is the Eternal Mother of Great Time.
11] Kalabhairavabharya ca : She who is the Wife of the Fearfulness of
12] Kulavartmaprakasini : She who illuminates the whole world family
13] Kamada : She who is the giver of All Desire
14] Kamini : She who is the giver of This Desire
15] Kamya : She who is desired
16] Kamaniyasvabhavini : She who is the Intrinsic Nature of that
which is desired.
17] Kasturirasaliptangi : She whose Limbs are Anointed with the Juice
18] Kunjaresvaragamini : She who Moves like, the Lord of Elephants
19] Kakaravarnasarvangi : She who is All the Limbs of the
Letter “ka”, the cause
20] Kamini : She who is This Desire
21] Kamasundari : She who si Beautiful Desire
22] Kamarta : She who is the Object of Desire
23] Kamarupa ca : She who is the Form of Desire
24] Kamadhenuh : She who is the cow which fulfills all desires
25] Kalavati : She who is the Respository of All Qualities or Arts
26] Kanta : She who is Beauty Enhanced by love
27] Kamasvarupa ca : She who is the Instrinsic form of desire
28] Kamakhya : She whose name is Desire
29] Kulapalini : She who protects Excellence
30] Kulina : She who is excellence
31] Kulavatyamba : She who is the Repository of Excellence
32] Durga : She who is the Reliever of Difficulties
33] Durgartinasini : She who is the destroyer of All various
34] Kumari : She who is ever pure
35] Kulaja : She who gives birth to excellence
36] Krsna : She who manifests all action
37] Krsnadeha : She who had a dark body
38] Krsodara : She who holds aloft all action
39] Krsamgi : She who embodies all actions
40] Kulisamgi ca : She who is the embodiment of Excellence
41] Krimkari : She who causes dissolution of the subtle body in to
the causal body.
42] Kamala : She who is lotus ( laksmi )
43] Kala : She who is art or all attributes
44] Karalasya : She who has a gaping mouth
45] Karali ca : She who dissolves all into her being
46] Kulakanta-parajita : She whose excellent beauty is undefeated
47] Ugra : She who is terrible
48] Ugraprabha : She whose light is Terrible
49] Dipta : She who is light
50] Vipracitta : She whose objects of consciousness are varied
51] Mahanana : She Who has a Great face
52] Nilaghana : She Who has the Complexion of a Dark Cloud
53] Valaka ca : She Who Exemplifies the Freedom of a Swan
54] Matra : She Who is Verse
55] Mudramitasita : She Whose positions of Her Limbs are Extremely
56] Brahmi : She Who is Creative Energy
57] Narayani : She Who is the Exposer of Consciousness
58] Bhadra : She Who is Excellent
59] Subhadra : She Who is the Excellent of Excellence
60] Bhaktavatsala : She Who Nourishes All Devotees
61] Mahesvari ca : She Who is the Great Seer of All
62] Camunda : She Who Moves in the Paradigm of Consciousness
63] Varahi : She Who is the Boar of Sacrifice
64] Narasimhika : She Who is the Ferocious Half Human Half lion of
65] Vajrangi : She Who has limbs of Lightening
66] Vajrakankali : She Whose head Shines like lightening
67] Nrmundasragvini : She Who is Adorned by a Garland.
68] Siva : She Who is the Energy of the Consciousness of Infinite
69] Malini : She Who wears a Garland of Skulls
70] Naramundali : She Who holds the Head of a Man
71] Galatrudhirabhusana : From the Garland of Skulls around Her Neck
Fall Drops of Blood
72] Ratkacandanasiktangi : She whose Limbs are covered by red
73] Sindurarunamastaka : She whose Forehead is Marked with the
Vermillion of Love which Brings the Light of Wisdom
74] Ghorarupa : She Who is of Fearful Form
75] Ghoradamstra : She Whose Teeth are Fearful
76] Ghoraghoratara : She Who is Auspicious which Takes beyond
77] Subha : She Who is Pure
78] Mahadamstra : She Who has Great Teeth
79] Mahamaya : She Who is the Great Definition of Consciousness
80] Sundanti : She Who has Excellent Teeth.
81] Yugadantura : She Who is Beyond the Ages of Time
82] Sulocana : She Who has Beautiful eyes
83] Virupaksi : She Whose Eyes are of Indescribably form
84] Visalaksi : She Who has Great Eyes
85] Trilocana : She Who Has three Eyes
86] Saradenduprasannasya : She Who is pleased as the Autumn Moon
87] Sphuratsmerambujeksana : She whose Purity Shines in Her Lotus Eyes
88] Attahasaprasannasya : She Who has Great Laugh in Extreme pleasure
89] Smeravaktra : She Who Speaks Words of Remembrance
90] Subhasini : She Who has Excellent Expression
91] Prasannapadmavadana : She Whose Lotus Lips Smile
92] Smitasya : She Whose Face is Always Happy.
93] Piyabhasini : She Who is the Beloved Expression of Love
94] Kotaraksi : She Whose Eyes are Infinite
95] Kulasresta : She Who is the Excellent of Excellence or of
96] Mahati : She Who has a Great Mind
97] Bahubhasini : She Who Has Various Expressions
98] Sumatih : She Who has an Excellent Mind
99] Kumatih : She Who has a Devious Mind
100] Canda : She Who has Passion
101] Candamundativegini : She Who destroys passion, Meanness and
102] Pracandacandika : She Who is Great Terrible Passion
103] Candi : She Who Tears Apart Thoughts
104] Candika : She Who is the Cause of Tearing Apart All thought
105] Candavegini : She who destroys all passion
106] Sukesi : She Who has beautiful hair
107] Muktakesi ca : She Who had unbound Hair
108] Dirghakesi : She Who has long hair
109] Mahatkuca : She Who has large breasts.
110] Pretadehakarnapura : She Who has the ears of the Cosmic Body
111] Pratapanisumekhala : She Who has the hands and Waist of the
112] Pretasana : She Who sits with disembodied spirits.
113] Priyapreta : She Who is the Beloved of Disembodied Spirits.
114] Pretabhumikrtalaya : She Who is the Land Where Disembodied
115] Smasanavasini : She Who resides in the Cremation Grounds
116] Punya : She Who is Merit
117] Punyada : She Who is the Giver of Merit.
118] Kulapandita : She Who is the One of Excellent Knowledge.
119] Punyalaya : She Who is the Residencee of Merit
120] Punyadeha : She Who Embodies Merit
121] Punyasloka ca : She Who every Utterance is Merit
122] Pavini : She Who Blows Like a Fresh Breeze.
123] Puta : She Who is the Daughter
124] Pavitra : She Who is pure.
125] Parama : She Who is Supreme
126] Purapunyavibhusana : She Who Illuminated the Fullest Merit.
127] Punyanamni : She Whose Name is Meritorious.
128] Bhitihara : She Who takes away fear and Doubt
129] Varada : She Who is the Grantor of Boons.
130] Khangapalini : She Who Has the sword of Wisdom in Her Hand.
131] Nrmundahastasasta ca : She Who Holds the Skull of Impure Thought
132] Chinnamasta : She Who holds the Severed head of Duality
133] Sunasika : She Who Has an Excellent Organ of Scent.
134] Daksina : She Who looks to the South; She who is the Offering
Made in Respect for Guidance.
135] Syamala : She Who has a Dark Complexion.
136] Syama : She Who is Dark
137] Santa : She Who is Peace.
138] Pinonnatastani : She Who raises the Trident in Her Hands.
139] Digambara : She Who Wears Space.
140] Ghorarava : She Whose sound in terrible.
141] Srkkanta : She Whose beauty creates.
142] Raktavahini : She Who is the Vehicle of passion
143] Ghorarava : She Whose Sound is Terrible
144] Sivasamgi : She who is with Siva.
145] Visamgi : She Who is Without Any other.
146] Madanatura : She Who is the Ultimate intoxication.
147] Matta : She Who is the Great Mind or Thinker.
148] Pramatta : She Who is the Foremost Mind or Thinker.
149] Pramada : She Who is the Giver of Preeminence.
150] Sudhasindhunivasini : She Who Resides in the Ocean of Purity.
151] Atimatta : She Who is Extremely Great Mind
152] Mahamatta : She Who is the Great Great Mind
153] Sarvakarsanakarini : She Who is the Cause of All Attraction
154] Gitapriya : She Who is the Beloved of Songs.
155] Vadyarata : She Who is Extremely Pleased by Music
156] Pretanrtyaparayana : She Who is the Eternal Dance of Disembodied
157] Caturbhuja : She Who Has four Arms.
158] Dasabhuja : She Who Has Ten Arms.
159] Astadasabhuja tatha : She Who Has Eighteen Arms also.
160] Katyayani : She Who is ever pure.
161] Jaganmata : She Who is the Mother of the Perceivable Universe.
162] Jagatam Paramesvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of the
163] Jagadhandhuh : She Who is the Friend of the Perceivable Universe.
164] Jagaddhatri : She Who creates the Perceivable Universe.
165] Jagadanandakarini : She Who is the Cause of Bliss in the
166] Jagajjivamayi : She Who is the Manifestation of All Life in the
167] Haimavati : She Who is Born of Himalayas.
168] Maya : She Who is the Great Measurement of Consciousness.
169] Mahamahi : She Who is the Great expression.
170] Nagayajnopavitangi : She Who is the Sacred thread on the body of
the snake, the adornment of Kundalini.
171] Nagini : She who is the snake.
172] Nagasayini : She who rests on snakes.
173] Nagakanya : She Who is the daughter of the snake.
174] Devakanya : She Who is the Daugther of the Gods.
175] Gandharvi ; She Who sings Celestial divine tunes.
176] Kinnaresvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of Heavenly Beings.
177] Moharatrih : She Who is the Night of ignorance.
178] Maharatrih : She Who is the Great Nights.
179] Daruna : She Who supports all
180] Bhasvarasuri : She Whose Radiancee Destroys Duality.
181] Vidyadhari : She Who Grants Great Knowledge
182] Vasumati : She Who has Wealth.
183] Yaksini : She Who Gives Wealth.
184] Yogini : She Who is Always in Union.
185] Jara : She Who is old
186] Raksasi : She Who is the Mother of all Demons.
187] Dakini : She Who is the Female Demonic Being.
188] Vedamayi : She Who is the Expression of Wisdom.
189] Vedavibhusana : She Who illuminated wisdom.
190] Srutih : She Who is That Which has been heard.
191] Smrtih : She Who is That which is remembered.
192] Mahavidya : She Who is Great Knowledge.
193] Guhyavidya : She Who is Hidden Knowledge
194] Puratani : She Who is the Oldest
195] Cintya : She Who is Thought.
196] Acintya : She Who is unthinkable.
197] Svadha : She Who is oblations of Ancestral Praise
198] Svaha : She Who is Oblations of I am one with God.
199] Nidra : She Who is sleep.
200] Tandra ca : She Who is partially awake.
201] Parvati : She Who is the Daughter of the Mountain
202] Aparna : She Who is Without parts.
203] Niscala : She Who cannot be divided.
204] Lola : She Who has a Protruding Tongue.
205] Sarvadidya : She Who is All Knowledge.
206] Tapasvini : She Who is the Performer of Purifying Austeritites.
207] Gamga : She Who is the Holy river.
208] Kasi : She Who is the Benaras.
209] Saci : She Who is the Wife of Indra.
210] Sita : She Who is the wife of Rama.
211] Sati : She Who is the wife of Siva
212] Satyaparayana : She Who always Moves in truth.
213] Nitih : She Who is systematized knowledge or Method
214] Sunitih : She Who is Excellent Systematized knowledge.
215] Surucih : She Who is Excellent Taste.
216] Tustih : She Who is satisfaction
217] Pustih : She Who is Nourishment.
218] Dhrtih : She Who is consistent solidity.
219] Ksama : She Who is forgiveness
220] Vani : She Who is words.
221] Buddhih : She Who is intelligence.
222] Mahalaksmih : She Who is the Great Goal of Existence.
223] Laksmih : She Who is the Goal.
224] Nilasarasvati : She Who is the Blue Goddess of Knowledge.
225] Srotasvati : She Who is the Spirit of All Sounds.
226] Sarasvati : She Who is the personification of One’s own
227] Matamgi ; She Who is the Mother of All Bodies.
228] Vijaya : She Who is conquest.
229] Jaya : She Who is Victory.
230] Nadi sindhuh : She Who is Rivers and Oceans.
231] Sarvamayi : She Who is the expressions of All.
232] Tara : She Who is the Illuminator.
233] Sunyanivasini : She Who Resides in Silencee.
234] Suddha : She Who is Purity.
235] Tarangini : She Who makes Waves.
236] Medha : She Who is the Intellect of Love.
237] Lakini : She Who is Manifesed Energies.
238] Bahurupini : She Who has many forms.
239] Sthula : She Who is the Gross Body.
240] Suksma : She Who is Subtle.
241] Suksmatara : She Who is the Subtle Wave.
242] Bhagavati : She Who is the Female Ruler of all.
243] Anuragini : She Who is the feeling of emotions.
244] Paramanandarupa ca : She Who is the Form of Supreme Bliss.
245] Cidanandasvarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the
Bliss of Consciousness.
246] Sarvanandamayi : She Who is the Expression of of All Bliss
247] Nitya : She Who is Eternal
248] Sarvanandasvarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Natura of All
249] Subhada : She Who is Giver of Purity.
250] Nandini : She Who is blissful 251] Stutya : She Who is praise.
252] Stavaniyasvabhavani : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of Songs
253] Ramkini : She Who Manifests subtlety
254] Bhamkini : She Who is Ferocious.
255] Citra : She Who is Artistic.
256] Vicitra : She Who has Various Artistic capacities.
257] Citrarupini : She Who is the Form of all art.
258] Padma : She Who is the Lotus.
259] Padmalaya : She Who Resides in a Lotus.
260] Padamukhi : She Who has Lotus Mouth.
261] Padmavibhusana : She Who shines like a Lotus.
262] Hakini : She is the Energy of the Divine “I”
263] Sakini : She Who is the Energy of Peace
264] Santa : She Who is Peace
265] Rakini : She Who is the Energy of Subtlety
266] Rudhirapriya : She Who is the Beloved
267] Bhrantih : She Who is Confusion.
268] Bhavani : She Who is Manifested Existence
269] Rudrani : She Who is the Energy that removes sufferings.
270] Mrdani : She Who is the Rhythm of Life
271] Satrumardini : She Who is the destroyer of All Enmity.
272] Upendrani : She Who is the Highest Energy of the Ruler of the
273] Mahendrani : She Who is the Great Energy of the Ruler of the
274] Jyotsna : She Who radiates Light.
275] Candrasvrupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the Moon of
276] Suryarmika : She Who is the Soul of the Light of Wisdom.
277] Rudrapatni : She Who is the Wife of Rudra, the Reliever of
278] Raudri : She Who is Fierce.
279] Stri Prakrtih : She Who is the Woman of Nature or the Nature of
280] Puman : She Who is Masculin.
281] Saktih : She Who is Energy
282] Suktih : She Who is Happiness.
283] Matih : She Who is the Mind.
284] Mata : She Who is the Mother.
285] Bhuktih : She Who is Enjoyment.
286] Muktih : She Who is Liberation.
287] Pativrata : She Who Observes the Vows of Devotion to her
288] Sarvesvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of All.
289] Sarvamata : She Who is Mother of All.
290] Sarvani : She Who Dwells in All.
291] Haravallabha : She Who is Siva’s Strength.
292] Sarvajna : She Who is Knower of All.
293] Siddhida : She Who is Giver of the Attainment of Perfection.
294] Siddha : She Who has Attained Perfection.
295] Bhavya : She Who is Existence.
296] Bhavya : She Who is All Attitudes.
297] Bhayapaha : She Who is Beyond all Fear.
298] Kartri : She Who Creates.
299] Hartri : She Who Transforms or Destroys.
300] Palayitri : She Who Protects
301] Sarvari : She Who Gives Rest
302] Tamasi : She Who Manifests Darkness
303] Daya : She Who is Compassionate.
304] Tamisra : She Who mixes or Mingles.
305] Tamasi : She who Manifest Darkness.
306] Sthanuh : She Who is Established
307] Sthira : She who is Still
308] Dhira : She Who is Stationary
309] Tapasvini : She Who performs Austerities.
310] Carvangi : She Whose Body is in Motion.
311] Cancala : She Who is restless.
312] Lolajihva : She Who has a Protruding Tongue.
313] Carucaritrini : She Whose Character is to Heal.
314] Trapa : She Who saves from Fear.
315] Trapavati : She Whose Spirits saves from Fear.
316] Lajja : She Who is Modesty.
317] Vilajja : She Who is without Modesty.
318] Hrih : She who is Humble.
319] Rajovati : She Who is the Repository of Rajas Guna.
320] Sarasvati : She Who is the Personification of One’s own Ocean
321] Dharmanistha : She Who is the Strict Observances of the Ideals
322] Srestha : She Who is Ultimate.
323] Nisthuranadini : She Whose Vibration is Extremely Subtle.
324] Garistha : She Who is Always Happy to See Her Devotees.
325] Dustasamhartri : She Who Dissolves All Evil.
326] Visista : She Who is Especially Beloved.
327] Sreyasi : She Who is the Ultimate.
328] Ghrna : She Who is Hatred.
329] Bhima : She Who is Terribly Fierce.
330] Bhayanaka : She Who is Extremely Fearful.
331] Bhimanadini : She Who has a Fierce Roar
332] Bhih : She Who is Fierce.
333] Prabhavati : She Who is the Spirit of Illumination.
334] Vagisvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of All Vibrations.
335] Srih : She Who is Respect
336] Yamuna : She Who Manifests complete control.
337] Yajnakartri : She Who is the Performer of Union or Sacrifice.
338] Yajuhpriya : She Who is the Beloved of Union or Lover of Yajur
339] Rksamarthavanilaya : She Who resides in the Three vedas
340] Ragini : She Who is All Rhythm
341] Sobhanasvara : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of Illumination
342] Kalakanthi : She Who Has a dark throat.
343] Kambukanthi : She Whose Neck has Lines like a Conch Shell.
344] Venuvinaparayana : She Who is Always Playing the Vina
345] Vamsini : She For Whom all is Family
346] Vaisnavi : She Who Pervades the Universe.
347] Svaccha : She Who Desires Herself.
348] Dharitri : She Who Holds the Three.
349] Jagadisvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of the Perceivable
350] Madhumati : She Who is the Nectar of Honey.
351] Kundalini : She Who is the Manifestation of Individual Energy.
352] Rddhih : She Who is Prosperity.
353] Siddhih : She Who is the Attainment of Perfection.
354] Sucismita : She Who is the Remembrance of the Pure.
355] Rambhorvasi : She Who is the Apsaras Rambha and Urvasi.
356] Rati Rama : She Who is Extremely Beautiful.
357] Rohini : She Who is the Luminous Light of The Heavens.
358] Sankhini : She Who Holds a Conch Shell.
359] Magha : She Who is Infinite Wealth.
360] Revati : She Who is Abundance.
361] Cakrini : She Who Holds a discuss.
362] Krsna : She Who is Dark, She Who is the performer of All
363] Gadini : She Who holds a Club.
364] Padmini Tatha : She Who is a Lotus then.
365] Sulini : She Who Holds a Spear.
366] Parighastra ca : She Who Holds the Weapon of Good Actions
367] Pasini : She Who Holds the Net.
368] Samgapanini: She Who Holds the Bow named samga in Her Hands.
369] Pinakadharini : She Who Holds the Spear.
370] Dhumra : She Who Obscures Perceptions.
371] Sarabhi : She Whose Strength is Greater than Lions or Elephants.
372] Vanamalini : She Who is the Gardener of the Forest.
373] Rathini : She Who Conveys All.
374] Samaraprita : She Who Loves the Battle.
375] Vegini : She Who is Swift.
376] Ranapandita : She Who is Expert in War.
377] Jatini : She Who Has disheveled Hair.
378] Vajrini : She Who holds the Thunderbolt or Lightening.
379] Lila : She Who is the Divine Drama.
380] Iavanyambudhicandrika : She Whose Beauty Radiated the Light of
381] Balipriya : She Who is the Beloved of Sacrifice.
382] Sadapujya : She Who is Worthy of Worship.
383] Purna : She Who is Full, Complete, Perfect.
384] Daityendramathini : She Who is Welcomed by the Leader of All
385] Mahisasurasamhartri : She Who is Destroyer of the Great Ruler of
386] Kamini : She Who is All Desires.
387] Raktadantika : She Who Has Red Teeth.
388] Raktapa : She Who Protects Passion
389] Rudhiraktangi : She Whose Body is Covered with Passion.
390] Raktakharparahastini : She Who Bears a Cup of Passion in Her
391] Raktapriya : She Whose Loves, or is the Beloved of Passion.
392] Mamsarucirasavasaktamanasa : She Who Delights in Eating Meat and
Drinking Intoxicating Spirits.
393] Galacchonitamundali : She Who Wears a Garland of Heads Dripping
394] Kanthamalavibhusana : She Who Wears a Garland Upon Her Neck.
395] Savasana : She Who sits upon a Corpse.
396] Citantahstha : She Who is Established in the Ultimate
397] Mahesi : She Who is the Greatest Seer of ALL.
398] Vrsavahini : She Who Rides Upon the Bull of Determination.
399] Vyaghratvagambara : She Who Wears a Garment of Tiger Skin.
400] Cinacailini : She Who Moves with the Speed of a Deer.
401] Simhavahini : She Who Rides Upon a Lion.
402] Vamadevi : She Who is the Beloved Goddess.
403] Mahadevi : She Who is a Great Goddess.
404] gauri : She Who is Rays of Light.
405] Sarvajnabhamini : She Who Illuminates All Wisdom.
406] Balika : She Who is a Young Girl.
407] Taruni : She Who is a Middle Aged Lady
408] vrddha : She Who is an Old Lady
409] Vrddhamata : She Who is the Mother of the Aged.
410] Jaratura : She Who is Beyond Age.
411] Subhruh : She Who Has an Excellent Forehead.
412] Vilasini : She Who resides Within Herself.
413] Brahmavadini : She Who is the Vibration of Supreme Diety.
414] Brahmani : She Who Creates Divinity.
415] Mahi : She Who is Earth.
416] Svapnavati : She Who is the Spirit of Dreams.
417] Citralekha : She Who is Various Writings.
418] Lopamudra : She Who is the Manifestation of The Which Is Beyond
419] Suresvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of All Divinity.
420] Amogha : She Who is Always Rewarding.
421] Arundhati : She Who is the Purity of Devotion, Epitome of
422] Tiksna : She Who is Sharp.
423] Bhogavati : She Who is the Spirit of All Enjoyment.
424] Anuragini : She Who is the Spirits of All Feelings.
425] Mandakini : She Who Organizes the Mind to Optimum Efficiency.
426] Mandahasa : She Whose Mind Always Laughs.
427] Jvalamukhi : She Whose Face Radiates.
428] Asurantaka : She Who is the Cause of the End of the Forces of
429] Manada : She Who is the Giver of Discipline.
430] Manini : She Who Creates Discipline.
431] Manya : She Who is Discipline
432] Mananiya : She Who is the Supreme Lord of Discipline.
433] Madatura : She Who is Completely Intoxicated
434] Madira Meduronmada : She Who is Intoxicated with Divine Spirit.
435] Medhya : She Who is Born of Intellect.
436] Sadhya : She Who is the Performer of All Discipline.
437] Prasadini : She Who is the Prasada or Consecration of Offerings.
438] Sumadhyanantagunini : She Who Resides in the Middle of Infinite
439] Sarvalokottamottama : All the Beings of All the Worlds Consider
Her to be Greater then the Greatest.
440] Jayada : She Who is the Giver of Victory.
441] Jitvara : She Who Grants the Boon of Victory.
442] Jetri : She Who is Victorious Over the Three.
443] Jayasrih : She Who is Victorious with Respect.
444] Jayasalini : She Who is the Repository of Victory.
445] Subhada : She Who is the Giver of Purity.
446] Sukhada : She Who is the Giver of Happiness or Comfort.
447] Satya : She Who is the Manifestation of Truth.
448] Sabhasamksobhakarini : She Who is the Cause of Purity for the
449] Sivaduti : She For Whom Siva is the Ambassador.
450] Bhutimati : She Who is the Expression of All Manifested
451] Vibhutih : She Who is the Expression of the Expressionless Deity
452] Bhisananana : She Whose Face is Free from Fear.
453] Kaumari : She Who is the Manifestation of the Ever Pure One.
454] Kulaja : She Who is the Giver of Birth to the Family.
455] Kunti : She Who takes Away the Deficiency of Others.
456] Kulastri : She Who is the Woman of the Family.
457] Kulapalika : She Who is the Protector of the Family.
458] Kirttih : She Who is Fame.
459] Yasasvini : She Who is Welfare.
460] Bhusa : She Who is the Peace of All Beings.
461] Bhustha : She Who is the Cause of Peace to All Beings.
462] Bhutapatipriya : She Who is Loved by the Lord of All
463] Saguna : She Who is With Qualities.
464] Nirguna : She Who is Without Qualities.
465] Trsna : She Who is All Thirst.
466] Nistha : She Who Obeys All the Rules.
467] Kastha : She Who is the Cause of Desire.
468] Pratisthita : She Who Establishes.
469] Dhanistha : She Who is the Beloved Wealth.
470] Dhanada : She Who is the Giver of Wealth.
471] Dhanya : She Who is Wealthy.
472] Vasudha : She Who Supports the Earth.
473] Suprakasini : She Who is Excellent Illumination.
474] Urvi : She Who is the Supreme Lord of Circumstances.
475] Gurvi : She Who is the Supreme Lord of Gurus.
476] Gurusrestha : She Who is the Ultimate Guru.
477] Sadguna : She Who is With Qualities of Truth.
478] Trigunatmika : She Who is the Manifestation of the Soul of the
479] Rajnamajna : She Who is the Wisdom of the Order of the King.
480] Mahaprajna : She Who is the Great Ultimate Wisdom
481] Saguna : She Who is With Qualities.
482] Nirgunatmika : She Who is the Manifestation of the Soul of the
483] Mahakulina : She Who is the Mother of all the Great Family.
484] Niskama : She Who is Without Desire.
485] Sakama : She Who is With Desire
486] Kamajivani : She Who is the Life of Desire.
487] Kamadevakala : She Who is the Attributes of the Lord of Desire.
488] Ramabhirama : She Who is the Energy of Perfection in the Subtle
489] Sivanartaki : She Who Dances with Siva.
490] Cinttamanih : She Who is the Jewel of All Thought.
491] Kalpalata : She Who clings to Thought.
492] Jagrati : She Who wakes UP the Universe.
493] Dinavatsala : She Who is the Refuge of the Downtrodden.
494] Karttiki : She Who is the Expression of All That is Done.
495] Krtika : She Who is the Doer or the Cause of All Doing.
496] Krtya : She Who is That Which is Done.
497] Ayodhya Visamasama : She Who is the Same as the Place Where
there is no War.
498] Sumantra : She Who is the Excellent Mantra Which Takes Away the
499] Mantrini : She Who is the Energy of All Mantras. 500] Purna : She Who is Perfect.
501] Hladini : She who is always happy.
502] Klesanasini : She who is the destroyer of All Imperfections
503] Trailokyajanani : She Who is the Mother of all the Three Worlds.
504] Jyestha : She Who is Oldest.
505] Mimamsamantrarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of Vedic
506] Tadaganimnajathara : She Who is the Fire of All Digestion
507] Suskamamsasthimalini : She Who wears a Garland of Dried Limbs
508] Avantimathurahrdya : She Who is the heart of Mathura and Avadha
509] Trailokyapavanaksama : She Who Brings the Winds of Forgiveness
to the Three Worlds.
510] Vyaktavyaktatmika murtih : She Who is the Image of the Manifest
and Unmanisfested Soul
511] Sarabhi bhimanadini : She Whose Sound is Extremely Loud.
512] Ksemankari : She Who is the Welfare of All.
513] Sankari ca : She Who is the Cause of Peace .
514] Sarvasammohakarini : She Who is Ignorance of All.
515] Urdhvatejasvini : She Who is the Rising Light of All.
516] Klinna : She Whose Heart is very Soft.
517] Mahatejasvini tatha : She Who is the Great Light
518] Advaitabhogini : She Who Enjoys Non Duality.
519] Pujya : She Who is Worthy of Worship
520] Yuvati : She Who is Young.
521] Sarvamangala : She Who is all welfare.
522] Sarvapriyankari : She Who is the cause of All Love.
523] Bhogya : She Who is Enjoyed.
524] Dharani : She Who Supports All.
525] Pisitasana : She Who sites upon a Deer.
526] Bhayamkari : She Who is fearful
527] Papahara : She Who takes Away All sins.
528] Niskalamka : She Who is without Fault.
529] vasamkari : She Who controls.
530] Asa : She who is Hope.
531] Trsna : She Who is Thirst.
532] Candrakala : She Who is the Digit of the Moon, Attribute of
533] Indrani : She Who is the Energy of the Ruler of the Pure.
534] Vayuvegini : She Who Moves With the Freedom of Emancipation.
535] Sahasrasuryasamkasa : She Whose Illumination is Like a Thousand
536] Candrakotisamaprabha : She Whose Illlumination is like Ten
537] Nisumbhasumbhasamhantri : She Who Dissolves Self-Deprecation and
538] Raktabijavinasini : She Who is the Destroyer of the Seed of
539] Madhukaitabhahantri ca : She Who Dissolves Too Much and Too
540] Mahisasuraghatini : She Who is the Destroyer of the Great Ego.
541] Vahnimandalamadhyastha : She Who is Situated in the Middle of
the Circle of Fire.
542] Sarvasattvapratisthita : She who Established All Truth.
543] Sarvacaravati : She Who is the Spirit of All that Does Not Move.
544] Sarvadevakanyadhidevata : She Who is the Supreme Goddess of All
545] Daksakanya : She Who is the Daughter of Ability.
546] Daksayajnanasini : She Who is the Destroyer of the sacrifice of
547] Durgatarini : She Who is the Reliever of Difficulties, Who Takes
Us Across the Ocean of Objects and Relationships.
548] Ijya : She Who is Desired.
549] Pujya : She Who is Worthy of Worship.
550] Satkirttih : She Who is True Fame.
551] Brahmarupini : She Who Has the Capacity of Form of Supreme
552] Vibhirbhutih : She Who Manifests the Greatest Fears.
553] Rambhotuh : She Who is the Beautiful One Residing in the Thights.
554] Caturakara : She Who Manifests the Four of Creation.
555] Jayanti : She Who is Victory.
556] Karuna : She Who is Compassionate
557] Kuhuh : She Who is the New Moon
558] Manasvini : She Who Reflects Mind.
559] Devamata : She Who is Mother of Gods
560] Yasasya : She Who is Worthy of Welfare.
561] Brahmacarini : She Who Moves in the Supreme Consciousness.
562] Siddhida : She Who is the Giver of Perfection.
563] Vrddhida : She Who is the Giver of Change or Modification.
564] Vrddhih : She Who is Change or Modification
565] Sarvadya : She Who is Foremost of All; She Who is Before All.
566] Sarvadayini : She Who is the Giver of All.
567] Agadharupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of That Which
Does not End.
568] Dhyeya : She Who is Meditated Upon.
569] Muladharanivasini : She Who Resides in the Muladhara Cakra.
570] Ajna : She Who Orders Creation.
571] Prajna : She Who is Primordial Wisdom.
572] Purnamanah : She Who is Full and Complete.
573] Candramukhyanukulini : She Who is the Complete Collection of the
face of the Moon.
574] Vavaduka : She Who Charms Everyone with Her Speech.
575] Nimnanabhih : She Whose Navel is Indented.
576] Satyasandha : She Who Has Found Turth.
577] Drdhavrata : She Who is Determined in Her Vow.
578] Anvisiki : She Who Embodies All Spiritual Knowledge.
579] Dandaniti : She Who is the Punishment by Which Discipline is
580] Trayi : She Who is Three.
581] Tridivasundari : She Who is the Beauty of the Three divinities.
582] Jvalini : She Who Burns.
583] Jvalini : She Who Causes to Burn.
584] Sailatanaya : She Who is the Daughter of the Mountain.
585] Vindhyavasini : She Who resides in Mountains of Knowledge that
586] Pratyaya : She Who Sees All Concepts.
587] Khecari : She Whose Spirit Soars.
588] Dhairya : She Who is Determination.
589] Turiya : She Who is Beyond.
590] Vimalatura : She Who is the Highest Expression of Purity.
591] Pragalbha : She Who is Confident.
592] Varunicchaya : She Who is the Reflection of the Cause of
593] Sasini : She Who is the Radiancec of the Moon.
594] Visphulingini : She Who has Subtle Radiance.
595] Bhaktih : She Who is Devotion.
596] Siddhih : She Who is Perfection.
597] Sadapritih : She Who is Always Beloved.
598] Prakamya : She Who is the Foremost of All Desires.
599] Mahimanima : She Who is the Mother Who is the Jewel of the
600] Icchasiddhih : She Who is the Perfection of All Desires.
601] Vasitva : She Who is the Supreme Controller
602] Isitvordhvanivasini : She Who Resides Above All that is desired.
603] Laghima : She Who is Extremely Small
604] Gayatri : She Who is the Wisdom of the Three.
605] Savitri : She Who is the Illuminator of the Three.
606] Bhuvanesvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of Manifested
607] Manohara : She Who Takes Away Thoughts.
608] Cita ; She Who is Consciousness.
609] Divya : She Who is Divine.
610] Devyudara : She Who holds Aloft All Goddesses.
611] Manorama : She Who Esemplifies Beauty of the Mind.
612] Pingala : She Who is a Subtle Avenue by Which Energy Flows.
613] Kapila : She Who is like a Cow, a giver of Pure Nourishment.
614] Jihvarasajna : She Who Has the Nectar of Wisdom on Her Tongue.
615] Rasika : She Who is All Nectar.
616] Rama : She Whe is Beauty.
617] Susumnedayogavati : She Who is the Spirit of Union Within the
618] Gandhari : She Who Wears an Excellent Scent.
619] narakantaka : She Who is the End of All Hell.
620] Pancali : She Who Belongs to the Five.
621] Rukmini : She Who is the Jewel of All Circumstances.
622] Radha : She Who is the Beloved of Krsna.
623] Radhya : She Who causes Consciousness in the Subtle Body.
624] Bhama : She Who is the Mother of Illumination.
625] Radhika : She Who is the Beloved of Krsna: She Who is the Cause
of Illumination of Consciousness in the Subtle Body.
626] Amrta : She Who is the Nectar of Immortality.
627] Tulasi : She Who is the Basil Plant.
628] Vrnda : She Who is the Giver of Changes.
629] Kaitabhi : She Who Constricts.
630] Kapatesvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of All Fraudulent
631] Ugracandesvari : She Who is the Ruler of Fearful Passion.
632] Virajanani : She Who is the Mother of All Heroes and Warriors.
633] Virasundari : She Who is the Beautiful of All Warriors.
634] UgraTara : She Whose Illumination is Fearful.
635] Yasodakhya : She Who is the Light in the Eyes of Yasoda.
636] Devaki : She Who is the Mother of Krsna: She Who caused Divinity
637] Devamanita : She Who is obeyed by the Gods.
638] Niramjana Cite : She Who is Formless Consciousness.
639] Devi : She Who is the Goddess.
640] Krodhini : She Who is Angry.
641] Kuladipika : She Who is the Light of Excellence.
642] Kulavagisvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of Vibrations of
643] Jvala : She Who Radiates.
644] Matrka : She Who is the Mother in the Form of Letters.
645] Dravani : She Who Manifests What you Value.
646] Drava : She Who is What you Value.
647] Yogesvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of Union.
648] Mahamari : She Who is the Great Destroyer.
649] Bhramari : She Who Comes in the Form of a Bee.
650] Bindurupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the Form of
651] Duti : She Who is Ambassador
652] Pranesvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of Life.
653] Gupta : She Who is Hidden
654] Bahula : She Who is Everywhere.
655] Damari : She Who plays the Damaru Drum
656] Prabha : She Who is Radiant Light.
657] Kubjika : She Who is Hunchbacked or Crippled.
658] Jnanini : She Who Manifests Wisdom.
659] Jyestha : She Who is Oldest.
660] Bhusundi : She Who Holds the Sling.
661] Prakatakrtih : She Who Manifests Without doing.
662] Dravini : She Who Manifests Wealth.
663] Gopini : She Who is Secretive.
664] Maya : She Who is the Supreme Measurement of Consciousness.
665] Kamabijesvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of the seed of
666] Priya : She Who is the Beloved
667] Sakambhari : She Who Nourishes With Vegetables.
668] Kukanada : She Who Engenders the Seed.
669] Susila : She Who is Consistently Excellent.
670] Tilottama : She Who is Excellently Pure.
671] Ameyavikramakrura : She Who Manifests Unsurpassed Grace.
672] Sampacchilativikrama : She Who is Spinning in the Attachment for
the lost of Wealth.
673] Svastihavyavaha : She Who is the Conveyance for the offerings of
674] Priti : She Who is the Beloved.
675] Usma : She Who is the Mother of Circumstances.
676] Dhumrarcirangada : She Who Makes the Body Free From Sin.
677] Tapini : She Who is Heat and Light.
678] Tapini : She Who is the cause of Heat and Light.
679] Visva : She Who is the Universe.
680] Bhogada : She Who is the Giver of enjoyment.
681] Bhogadharini : She Who is the Supporter of Enjoyment.
682] Trikhanda : She Who has Three Parts.
683] Bodhini : She Who Manifests Wisdom.
684] Vasya : She Who is Controlled.
685] Sakala : She Who is All.
686] Visvarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the Universe.
687] Bijarupa : She Who is the Form of the Seed.
688] Mahamudra : She Who is the Great Configuration of the Cosmos.
689] Vasini : She Who Controls.
690] Yogarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of Union.
691] Anangakusuma : She Wh ois the Flower of Infinity.
692] Anangamekhala : She Who wears the Girdle of Infinity.
693] Anangarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of Infinity.
694] Anangamadana : She Who is the Intoxication of Infinity.
695] Anangarekha : She Who is the Limit of Infinity.
696] Anangankusesvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of the Goad of
697] Anangamalini : She Who is the Garderner Who Cultivated Infinity.
698] Kamesvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of All Desires.
699] Sarvarthasadhika : She Who Performs discipline for all
700] Sarvatamtramayi : She Who is the Expression of All Applications
of Spiritual Knowledge.
701] Modinyarunanangarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the
Intoxicating Light of Infinite Love
702] Vajresvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of Lightening
703] Janani : She who is Mother
704] sarvaduhkhaksayamkari : She Who Dissolves All Pain into the
705] Sadangayuvati : She Who is a Young Lady with Six Limbs.
706] Yogayukta : She Who is United in Union.
707] Jvalamsumalini : She Who is the Cultivator of Radiance.
708] Durasaya : She Who Resides in the Distance
709] Duradharsa : She Who is a Difficult Ideal to Attain.
710] Durjneya : She Who Gives Knowledge that is Difficult to attain.
711] Durgarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the Reliever of
712] Duranta : She Who is the End of Distance.
713] Duskrtihara : She Who Takes Away Evil Action.
714] Durdhyeya : She Who is Knowledge that is Difficult to Attain.
715] Duratikrama : She Who is the Mother of All Difficult Action.
716] Hamsesvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of Laughter.
717] Trikonastha : She Who Resides in a Triangle.
718] Sakambharyanukampini : She Who is the Feeling of Nourishment
from Vegetables and Produce of the Earth.
719] Trijonamilaya : She Who Resides Beyond the Triangle.
720] Nitya : She Who is Eternal.
721] Paramamrtaramjita : She Who is the Enjoyment of the Supreme
Nectar of Immortality.
722] Mahavidyesvari ; She Who is the Supreme Ruler of The Great
723] Sveta : She Who is White or Pure.
724] Bherunda : She Who is Formidable.
725] Kulasundari : She Who is the Beauty of Excellence.
726] Tvarita : She Who is Quick.
727] Bhaktisamyukta : She Who is Completely United in Devotion.
728] Bhativasya : She Who is Under the Control of Devotion.
729] Santani : She Who is Eternal
730] Bhaktanandamayi : She Who is the Manifestation of the Bliss of
731] Bhaktabhavita : She Who is the Attitude of Devotion.
732] Bhaktasankari : She Who is the cause of the Peace of Devotion.
733] Sarvasundaryanilaya : She Who is the Repository of all Beauty.
734] Sarvasaubhagyasalini : She Who is the Repository of all Good
735] Sarvasambhogabhavani : She Who is the Mother of all Enjoyment.
736] Sarvasaukhyanurupini : She Who is the Intrinic Nature of the
Feeling of All Comforts.
737] Kumaripujanarata : She Who enjoys the Worship of the Ever Pure
738] Kumarivratacarini : She Who continues the Performance of the Vow
of Worship for the ever pure one.
739] Kumari : She Who is the ever pure one.
740] Bhaktisukhini : She Who Gives the Pleasure of Devotion.
741] Kumarirupadharini : She Who wears the Form of The Every Pure
742] Kumaripujakaprita : She Who Loves the Worship of the Every pure
743] Kumaripritidapriya : She Who is the beloved of the Beloved of
the ever pure one.
744] Kumarisevakasamga : She Who is United in the Service of the Ever
745] Kumarisevakalaya : She Who Resides Within Those Who Serve the
Ever Pure One.
746] Anandabhairavi : She Who is the Bliss Beyond All Fear.
747] BalaBhairavi : She Who is the Strength Beyond All Fear.
748] Batubhairavi : She Who is Youth Beyond All fear.
749] Smasanabhairavi : She Who is in the Cremation Ground Where All
fears Ends. 750] Kalabhairavi : She Who is Time Beyond All Fear.
751] Purabhairavi : She Who is in the Cremation Ground Where All Fear
752] Mahabhairavapatni : She Who is the Spouse of the Great One
Beyond All Fears.
753] Paramanandabhairavi : She Who is the Supreme Bliss Beyong
754] Suranandabhairavi : She Who is Divine Bliss Beyond All Fear
755] Unmattanandabhairavi : She Who is Bliss Beyond All Fear
756] Muktyanandabhairavi : She Who is the Bliss of Liberation Beyond
757] Tarunabhairavi : She Who is the Energy that Pulls Beyond Fear
758] Jnananandabhairavi : She Who is the Bliss of Wisdom Beyond All
759] Amrtanandabhairavi : She Who is the Nectar of Immortality Beyond
760] Mahabhayamkari : She Who is Greatly Fearful
761] Tivra : She Who is Very Swift.
762] Tivravega : She Who Moves Very Swiftly
763] Tarasvini : She Who Takes Across
764] Tripura : She Who is the Resident of the Three Cities.
765] Paramesani : She Who is the Supreme ruler of All.
766] Sundari : She Who is the Beautiful One.
767] Purasundari : She Who is Completely Beautiful.
768] Tripuresvari : She Who is the Supreme ruler of the Three Cities.
769] Pancadasi : She Who is the Fifteen Lettered One.
770] Pancami : She Who is the Fifth.
771] Puravasini : She Who is the Resident of the City.
772] Mahasaptadasi : She Who is the Great Seventeen
773] Sodasi : She Who is the Sixteen.
774] Tripuresvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of the Three Cities.
775] Mahamkusasvarupa : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the Great
776] Mahacakresvari Tatha : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of the Great
Centers of Energy.
777] Navacakresvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of the Nine
778] Cakresvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of the Centers of the
779] Tripuramalini : She Who is the Gardener of the Three Cities.
780] Rajacakresvari : She Who is the Supreme Ruler of the Kings of
All Centers of Energy.
781] Vira : She Who is the Female Hero.
782] Mahatripurasundari : She Who is the great Beautiful One of the
783] Sindurappurarucira : She Who is Completely Delighted with the
Red Spot of Vermilion.
784] Srimattripurasundari : She Who is the Respected Beautiful One of
the Three Cities.
785] Savangasundari : She Whose All Limbs are Beautiful.
786] Rakta : She Who is Passion.
787] Raktavastrottariyaka : She Who is Clothed in Red Garment.
788] Yava : She Who is Passion.
789] Yavakasinduraraktacandanadharini : She Who Wears Vermilion and
Red Sandal Paste.
790] Yavayavakasinduraraktacandanarupadhrk : She Whose Youthful
Countenance is Constantly Adorned with Red Vermilion and Red Sandal
791] Camari : She Who is Inconstant.
792] Vacakutilanirmalasyamakesini : She Who is Spoken of as One Who
Has Pure Dark Wavy Hair.
793] Vajramauktikaratnadyakiritamukutojjvala : She in Whose Crown the
Pearls and Jewels are Shinning Like Lightening.
794]Ratnakundalasamyuktasphuradgandamanorama : She Who Disseminates a
Beautiful Scent is Wearing a Necklace of Radiantly Shinning Jewels
Which are United Together.
795] Kunjaresvarakumbhotthamuktaranjitanasika : She Who Wears an
Extremely Beautiful Nose Ring which is made from the Supreme Lord of
All Jewels and Pearls.
796] Muktavidrumamanikyaharadhyastanamandala : She Who Wears a
Necklace of Exquisitely beautiful Pearls and Jewels in the region of
797] Suryakantendukantadhyasparsamakanthabhusana : She Whose Throat
is Shinning by the Ultimate Touch of the Sun and the Moon.
798] Bijapurasphuradbijadantapamktiranuttama : She Whose Fifteen
Excellent Teeth are Completely Shinning with Bija Mantra.
799] Kamakodandakabhugnabhruyugaksipravartini : She Whose Eye in the
Middle of Her Forehead Disciplines Desire.
800]Matangakumbhavaksoja : She Whose Breasts Give Nourishment to
801] Iasatkokanadeksana : She Who Especially Loves the Red Lotus
802] Manojnasaskulikarna : She Who Knows the Entire Path from the Ear
to the Mind.
803] Hamsigatividambini : She Who is the Mother of the Swan Motion.
804] Padmaragamgadadyotaddoscatuskaprakasini : She Whose Lotus-like
Body is the Illuminator of the Four Vedas.
805] Nanamaniparisphuryacchuddhakancanakamkana : She Who Wears
Bracelets Shining with Various Gems and Jewels.
806] Nagendradantanirmanavalayancitapanika : She Whose Fingers of Her
Hands Bear Rings of Ivory and Other Gems.
807] Amguriyakacitramgi : She Who Wears Rings on Various Parts of Her
808] Vicitraksudraghantika : She Who Holds an Unusually Small Bell.
809] Pattambaraparidhana : She Who Wears Shiny Silk Cloth.
810] Kalamanjiraranjini : She Who Enjoys the Tinkling of Cymbals to
Accompany Devotional Chanting.
811] Karpuragurukasturikumkumadravalepita : She Who Wears Unguents of
Camphor, Woodapple, and Musk mixed with Red Paste.
812] Vicitraratnaprthivikalpasakhatalasthita : She Who is Situated on
the Earth Covered with Various Jewels at the Foot of the Tree of All
813] Ratnadvipasphuradratnasimhasananivasini : She Who Sits upon a
Seat of Jewels From the Purity of the Island of Jewels.
814] Satcakrabhedanakari : She Who Pierce the Six Centers of Energy.
815] Paramanandarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the
816] Sahasradalapadmantascandramandalavartini :
817] Brahmarupasivakrodananasukhavilasini : She Who Resides in the
Form of Supreme Divinity, in the Anger of Siva, and in Various Forms
818] Haravisnuvirancindragrahanayakasevita : She Who is Served by
Siva, Visnu, Brahma, Indra and the Leaders of the Planets.
819] Atmayonih : She Who is the Womb of the Soul.
820] Brahmayonih : She Who is the Womb of the Supreme Divinity.
821] Jagadyonih : She Who is the Womb of Perceivable Universe.
822] Ayonija : She Who Does Not Take Birth from any womb.
823] Bhagarupa : She Who is the Form of Wealth.
824] Bhagasthatri : She Who resides Within Wealth.
825] Bhaginibhagadharini : She Who Upholds Wealth and is the Wealth.
826] Bhagatmika : She Who is the Capacity for the Support of Wealth.
827] Bhagadhararupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the
Manifestation of Wealth.
828] Bhagasalini : She Who Responses in Wealth.
829] Lingabhidhayini : She Who is a Progenitor of the Subtle Body.
830] Lingapriya : She Who is the Beloved of the Subtle Body.
831] Linganivasini : She Who resided Within the Subtle Body.
832] Lingastha : She Who is Situated in the Subtle Body.
833] Lingini : She Who is the Capacity of the Subtle Body.
834] Lingarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the Subtle
835] Lingasundari : She Who is the Beautiful One in the Subtle Body.
836] Lingagitimahapritih : She Who is Greatly Enamored of the Songs
837] Bhagagitirmahasukha : She Who Derived great Pleasure from the
Wealth of Songs.
838] Linganamasadananda : She Who Always Takes Delight in the Subtle
839] Bhaganamasadaratih : She Who is Always Inspired by the Name
Which Bears Wealth.
840] Bhaganamasadananda : She Who is Always in Bliss with the Names
Which Bear Wealth.
841] Linganamasadaratih : She Who is Always Inspired by the Names of
842] Lingamalakanthabhusa : She At Whose Throat Shines Forth the
Garland of Subtlety.
843] Bhagamalavibhusana : She Who Shines Forth with the Garland of
844] Bhagalimgamrtaprita : She Who is Beloved of the Subtle Nectar of
845] Bhagalingamrtatmika : She Who is the Capacity of the Subtle
Nectar of Wealth to Manifest.
846] Bhagalingarcanaprita : She Who is the Beloved of the Offering of
847] Bhagalingasvarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of Subtle
848] Bhagallingasvarupa : She Who is the Essence of Subtle Wealth.
849] Bhagalingasukhavaha : She Who is the Conveyance of the Pleasure
of Subtle Wealth.
850] Svayambhukusumaprita : She Who is the Beloved of the Flower
Which is Born of Itself.
851] Svayambhukusumarcita: She Who is the Offering of the Flower
Which is Born of Itself.
852] Svayambhukusumaprana : She Who is the Life Force of the Flower
Which is Born itself
853] Svayambhukusumotthita : She Who Raises Aloft the Flower Which is
Born of itself.
854] Svayambhukusumasnata : She Who is Bathed by the Flower Which is
Born of Itself.
855] Svayambhupuspatarpita : She Who is the Offering to Ancestors of
the Flowers which is Born of Itself.
856] Svayambhupuspaghatita : She Who is the Refuge of the Flower
Which is Born of Itself.
857] Svayambhupushadharini : She Who Upholds or Supports the Flower
Which is Born of Itself.
858] Svayambhupushatilaka : She Who Wears a Tilak Made of the Flower
Which is Born of Itself.
859] Svayambhupuspavarcita : She Who Offers the Flowers Which is Born
860] Svayambhupuspanirata : She Who is Absorbed in the Essence of the
Flower Which is Born of Itself.
861] Svayambhukusumagraha : She Who is Beyond the Worlds of the
Flower Which is Born of Itself.
862] Svayambhupuspayajnamga : She Who Offers in Sacrifice to Her Own
Self the Flower Which is Born of Itself.
863] Svayambhukusumatmika : She Who is the Capacity of the Soul to
Manifest the Flower Which is Born of Itself.
864] Svayambhupusparacita : She Who is the Expression of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
865] Svayambhukusumapriya : She Who is the Beloved of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
866] Svayambhukusumadanalalasonmattamanasa : She Whose Mind is
Intoxicated with Desire for the Flower Which is Born by Itself.
867] Svayambhukusumanandalaharisnigdhadehini : She Whose Friendly
Body Experience Waves of Bliss from the Flower Which is Born by
868] Svayambhukusumadhara : She Who Supports the Flower Which is Born
869] Svayambhukusumakula : She Who is the Family of the Flower Which
is Born by Itself.
870] Svayambhupuspanilaya : She Who Resides in the Flower Which is
Born by Itself.
871] Svayambhupuspavasini : She Who Sits on the Flower Which is Born
872] Svayambhukusumasnigdha: She Who is the Friend of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
873] Svayambhukusumotsuka : She Who is the Supreme Pleasure of the
Flower Which is Born by Itself.
874] Svayambhupuspakarini : She Who is the Cause of the Flower Which
is Born by Itself.
875] Svayambhupspapalika : She Who is the Protector of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
876] Svayambhukusumadhyana : She Who is the Student or Meditator on
the Flower Which is Born by Itself.
877] Svayambhukusumaprabha : She Who is the Radiance of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
878] Svayambhukusumajnana : She Who is the Wisdom of the Flower Which
is Born by itself.
879] Svayambhupuspabhogini : She Who is the Enjoyer of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
880] Svayambhukusumananda : She Who is the Bliss of the Flower Which
is Born by Itself.
881] Svayambhupuspavarsini : She Who Causes the Rain of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
882] Svayambhukusumatsaha : She Who is the Enthusiasm of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
883] Svayambhupuspapuspini : She Who is the Flower of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
884] Svayambhukusumotsamga : She Who is Always With the Flower Which
is Born by Itself.
885] Svayambhupusparupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the
Flower Which is Born by Itself.
886] Svayambhukusumonmada : She Who is the Intoxication of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
887] Svayambhupuspasundari : She Who is the Beauty of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
888] Svayambhukusumaradhya : She Who is Delighted by the Flower Which
is Born by Itself.
889] Svayambhukusumodbhava : She Who Gives Birth to the Flower Which
is Born by Itself.
890]Svayambhukusumavyagra : She Who Distinguishes the Flower Which is
Born by Itself.
891] Svayambhupuspavarnita : She Who Expresses the Flowers Which is
Born by Itself.
892] Svayambhupukakaprajna : She Who is the Supreme Wisdom of Worship
of that Which is Born by itself.
893] Svayambhuhotrmatrka : She Who is the Mother of the Supreme
Wisdom of Sacrifical Worship of that Which is Born by Itself.
894] Svayambhudatrraksitri : She Who Protects the Bestower of that
Which is Born by itself.
895] Svayambhubhaktabhavika : She Who Intuitively Understands the
Attitude of Devotion of that Which is Born by Itself.
896] Svayambhukusumaprajna : She who is the Wisdom of the Flower
Which is Born by Itself.
897] Svayambhupujakapriya : She Who is the Beloved of the Worship of
that Which is Born by Itself.
898] Svayambhuvandakadhara : She Who Supports the cause of Worship of
that Which is Born by Itself.
899] Svayambhunindakantaka : She who is the Cause of the End of that
Which is Born by itself.
900] Svayambhupradasarvasva : She who is the Bestower of all the
Which is Born by Itself.
901] Svayambhunindakantaka : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of the
Bestower of that Which is Born by Itself.
902] Svayambhupradasasmera : She Who is the Remembrance of the
bestower of that Which is Born of Itself.
903] Svayambharddhasaririni : She Who is the Half Body of that Which
is Born By Itself.
904] Sarvakalodbhavaprita : She Who is the Beloved Who Gives Birth to
905] sarvakalodbhavatmika : She Who Has the Capacity of the
Expression of the Soul Which Gives Birth to All Time.
906] Sarvakalodbhava : She Who is the Attitude of All Time.
907] Sarvakalodbhavodbhava : She Who Gives Birth To Time.
908] Kundapuspasadapritih : She Who is the Beloved of All the Flowers
in the Receptacle.
909] Golapuspasadagatih : She Who Always Moves with the Flowers of
910] Kundagolodbhavaprita : She Who is the Beloved of the Light in
911] Kundagolodbhavatmika : She Who has the Capacity of the Soul to
Express the Light in the Receptacle
912] Sukradhara : She Who is the Supporter of Purity.
913] Sukrarupa : She Who is the Form of Purity.
914] Sukrasindhunivasini : She Who Resides Within the Ocean of
915] Sukralaya : She Who has Indestructible Purity.
916] Sukrabhoga : She Who is the Enjoyer of Purity.
917] Sukrapujasadaratih : She Who is Delighted by Worship with
918] Raktasaya : She Who Rests in Passion
919] Rakrabhoga : She Who is the Enjoyer of Passion
920] Rakrapujasadaratih : She Who is Constantly Delighted by Worship
921] Rakrapuja : She Who is Worshipped with Passion.
922] Raktahoma : She Who is Offered Sacrificial Offerings With
923] Raktastha : She Who is Situated in Passion.
924] Raktavatsala : She Who Takes Refuge in Passion.
925] Raktavama : She Who is the Description of Passion.
926] Raktadeha : She Who has the Body of Passion.
927] Raktapujakaputrina : She Who is the Daughter Born From Worship
928] Raktadyuti : She Who is the Dignity of Passion.
929] Raktasprha : She Who is the Touch of Passion.
930] Devi : She Who is the Goddess
931] Raktasundari : She Who is Beautiful Passion.
932] Raktabhidheya : She Who Knows Passion.
933] Raktarha : She Who is Worthy of Passion.
934] Raktakandaravandita : She Who is Celebratted as the Passion of
the God of Love.
935] Maharakta : She Who is Great Passion.
936] Raktabhava : She Who Exists in Passion.
937] Raktasrstividhayini : She Who Gives the Creation of Passion.
938] Raktasnata : She Who Bathes in Passion.
939] Raktasikta : She Who is Soaked in Passion.
940] Raktasevtatiraktini : She Who Becomes Extremely Passionate with
the Selfless Service of Passion.
941] Raktanandakari : She Who Manifests the Bliss of Passion.
942] Raktasadanandavidhayini : She who Always Gives the Bliss of
943] Raktasaya : She Who Rests Within Passion.
944] Raktapurna : She Who gives Full, Complete and Perfect Passion.
945] Raktasevya : She Who is Served by Passion.
946] Manorama : She Who is Beautiful
947] Raktapujakasarvasva : She Who is Worshipped in All With Passion.
948] Raktanindakanasini : She Who Destroys the Criticism of Passion.
949] Raktatmika : She Who is the Soul’s Capacity for the
Expression of Passion.
950] Raktarupa : She Who is a Form of Passion.
951] Raktakarsanakarini : She Who is the Cause of the Attraction of
952] Raktotsaha : She Who is the Enthusiasm of Passion.
953] Raktadhya : She Who Rides Upon Passion.
954] Raktapanaparayana : She Who Drinks With Passion.
955] Sonitanandajanani : She Who is the Mother of the Bliss of the
Female Seed of Life.
956] Kallolasnigdharupini : She Who is the Intrinic Nature of
Attachment to the Family.
957] Sadhakantargata Devi : She Who is the Goddess Who Goes Inside
958] Payini : She Who is Pure Nourishment.
959] Papanasini : She Who is the Destroyer of All Sin ( Confusion )
960] Sadhakanam Sukhakari : She Who is the Giver of Delight to All
961] Sadhakarivininasini : She Who Destroys the Impurity of All
962] Sadhakanam Hrdisthatri : She Who is Situated in the Heart of All
963] Sadhakanandakarini : She Who is the Cause of the Bliss of All
964] Sadhakananca Janani : She Who is the Mother of the Bliss of All
965] Sadhakapriyakarini : She Who is the Cause of the Love of Sadhus.
966] Sadhakapracuranandasampatti Sukhadayini : She Who Gives the
Wealth of Delight and Extreme Bliss to Sadhus.
967] Sukrapujya : She Who is Worshipped by Purity.
968] Sukrahomasantusta : She who is Satisfied with Sacrificial
Offerings of Purity.
969] Sukravatsala : She Who Takes Refuge in Purity.
970] Sukramurtih : She Who is the Image of Purity.
971] Sukradeha : She Who is the Embodiment of Purity.
972] Sukrastha : She Who is Situated in Purity.
973] Sukrapujakaputrini : She Who is the Daughter of Worship with
974] Sukrini : She Who is Supreme Purity.
975] Sukrasamsprha : She Who is the Complete Touch of Purity.
976] Sukrasundari : She Who is the Beauty of Purity.
977] Sukrasnata : She Who is Bathed in Purity
978] Sukrakari : She Who is the Manifestation of Purity.
979] Sukrasevyatisukrini : She Who is the Supreme Purity Served by
980] Mahasukra : She Who is the Great Purity.
981] Sukrabhava : She Who is Pure Existence.
982] Sukravrstividhayini : She Who is the Giver of the Rain of
983] Sukrabhidheya : She Who is the Supreme Wisdom of Purity.
984] Sukrarhasukravandakavandita : The Pure of the Pure Consider Her
as the Worshiped of the Worshipped.
985] Sukranandakari : She who is the Expression of the Bliss of
986] Sukrasadanandavidhayini : She Who Always Gives the Bliss of
987] Sukrotsava : She Who Enjoys the festivals of Purity.
988] Sadasukrapurna : She who Always Manifests Full, Complete and
989] Sukramanorama : She Who is the Beauty of Purity.
990] Sukrapujakasarvasva : She Who is Worshipped As the Pure in All.
991] Sukranindakanasini : She Who is the Destroyer of the Criticism
992] Sukratmika : She Who Has the Capacity of the Soul of Purity.
993] Sukrasampacchukrakarsakarini : She Who is the Cause of
Attraction of the Wealth of Purity.
994] Sarada : She Who is the Giver of All.
995] Sadhakaprana : She Who is the Lifeforce of sadaka.
996] Sadhakasaktamanasa : She Who Disables the Divisive Thoughts of
997] sadhakottamasarvasvasadhika : She Who is the Female Sadaka of all
998] Bhaktavatsala : She Who is the Refuge of Devotees.
999] sadhakanandasantosa : She Who is Completely Pleased with Bliss.
1000] Sadhakadhivinasini : She Who is the Destroyer of All Thoughts
1001] Atmavidya : She Who is the Knowledge of the Soul.
1002] Brahmavidya : She Who is the Knowledge of Supreme Divinity.
1003] Parabrahmmasvarupini : She Who is the Intrinsic Nature of
1004] Trikutastha : She Who is Established in Three Places.
1005] Pamcakuta : She Who is Established in Five Places.
1006] Sarvakutasaririni : She Who is the Embodiment of All Places.
1007] Sarvavamayi : She who is the Expression of All That can be
1008] Varnajapamalavidhyini : She Who is the Giver of the Garland of All Expressions Which can be Recited.
Although she has the same name, she is separate, as an avarana or attendant, of Kalika.
Meditation(DYANAM): Dark hued, very terrifying, horribly screaming, formidable, with a garland of skulls, full swelling breasts, holding a cleaver in her right hand and making the threatening gesture in her left, in a cremation ground.
Mantra: Om Hrim Kali Kali Mahakali Kaumari Mahyam Dehi Svaha.
Kapalini: The second Nitya
Her name means Skull-girl. Meditation(DYANAM): Black, naked, beautiful face, dishevelled hair, seated on four severed heads, showing a cleaver, trident, bestowing boons and dispelling fear.
Mantra: Om Hrim Krim Kapalini Maha-kapala-priye-manase kapala-siddhim me dehi Hum Phat Svaha.
Attendants: In inner triangle desire, action and knowledge. In middle triangle Rati, Priti, Kanti. In outer triangle Mahakali, Mahalakshmi, Mahasarasvati. In the eight petals the eight bhairavas, with the eight Matrika DevÌs. In the bhupura the guardians of the directions.
Kulla: The third Nitya
Meditation(DYANAM): Four-armed, with three eyes, seated on ten severed heads on a corpse, showing the gesture giving boons and dispelling fear in her two left hands, in her right hands she holds a book and a rosary.
Mantra: Om Krim Kullaya Namah.
Attendants: In the first triangle Dhriti, Pushti, Medha. In second Tushti, Prajna, Jaya. In the eight petals the eight Matrikas and Bhairavas, in the four doors the Lokapalas (Guardians of the directions cardinal and intermediate).
Kurukulla: The fourth Nitya
Meditation: Large rising breasts, beautiful buttocks, black in colour, seated on a corpse, with dishevelled hair, wearing a garland of skulls, carrying a skull, scissors, a cleaver and a shield.
Mantra: Krim Om Kurukulle Krim Hrim Mama Sarva-Jana-Vasamanya Krim Kurukulle Hrim Svaha.
Attendants: In inner triangle Kali, Tara, Chinnamasta. In middle Balamba, Ragala, Rama. In outer Ugra-Garbha, Ugra-Bija, Ugra-Virya. The eight Bhairavas and the eight Matrikas are in the eight petals, and the Lokapalas are in the directions.
Virodhini: The fifth Nitya
Meditation: Full rising breasts, wearing a garland of snakes and bones, terrific, with three eyes and four arms, holding a trident, a serpent noose, a bell and a damaru. Seated on a corpse, yellow body, purple clothes.
Mantra: Om Krim Hrim Klim Hum Virodhini satrun-ucchataya virodhaya virodhaya satru- ksayakari Hum Phat.
Attendants: In inner triangle Dhumrarchirushma, Javalini, Visphulingini, in middle Sushri, Surupa, Kapila. In outer the three Shaktis called Havyavaha, Virodhini-mastake, Dashami. In the eight petals the eight Bhairavas and Matrikas, in the bhupura the Lokapalas.
Vipracitta: The sixth Nitya
Meditation: Full rising breasts, four arms, three eyes, naked, the colour of a blue lotus, dishevelled hair, rolling tongue, inspiring fear, holding a cleaver, a severed head, a skull cap and a trident. She shows her teeth, from the corner of her mouth flows blood.
Mantra: Om Shrim Klim Camunde Vipracitte Dushta-Ghatini Shatrun-Nashaya Etad-Dina-Vadhi Priye Siddhim Me Dehi Hum Phat Svaha.
Attendants: Bindu with bija, three gunas in the triangle, six limbs in the hexagram, the Matrikas and the Bhairavas in the eight petals, the guardians of the directions in the bhupura.
Ugra: the seventh Nitya
Meditation: Naked, formidable, with terrific fangs, legs in pratyalidha posture, wearing a garland of skulls, with dishevelled hair, black, four arms, holding a sword, a night lotus, a skull and a knife, dwelling in the cremation ground.
Mantra: Om Strim Hum Hrim Phat.
Attendants: In centre Hum bija, in triangle Tara, Nila and Ekajata. In the eight petals Ugra- Ghopra and the rest of the Bhairavas, on the outside Vairochana and the rest of the eight matrikas, in the bhupura the lokapalas.
Ugraprabha: The eighth Nitya
Meditation: Four arms, three eyes, colour of a blue lotus, seated on a corpse, naked, with dishevelled hair, rising swelling breasts, pleasant face, eating carrion, wearing a girdle of severed hands of corpses, holding a cleaver and a head, a skull bowl and a knife.
Mantra: Om Hum Ugra-Prabhe DevÌ Kali Mahadevi Svarupam Darshaya Hum Phat Svaha.
Attendants: in first triangle Kali, Tara and Rochani. In outer triangle Tarini-Gana, Taramekajata and Nila. In the eight petals the Matrikas, on the tips of the petals the eight Bhairavas. In the bhupura the Lokapalas.
Dipa Nitya: The ninth Nitya
Meditation: Four arms, three eyes, like a large sapphire, with a garland of skulls, naked, dishevelled hair, fearful fangs, armlets of human bone, bracelets of skulls, carries a cleaver and a head in her left hands and shows the gestures of dispelling fear and gesture of giving in her right hands.
Mantra: Om Krim Hum Diptayai Sarva-Mantra-Phaladayai Hum Phat Svaha.
Nila: The tenth Nitya
Meditation: Four arms, three eyes, like blue orpiment, wearing a necklace of skulls, seated on a corpse, eyes red and rolling, protruding tongue, ornaments of human flesh and bones, beautiful face, eyes like a gazelle.
Mantra: Hum Hum Krim Krim Hrim Hrim Hasabalamari Nilapatake Hum Phat.
Attendants: In triangle Kalaratri, Maharatri, Moharatri. In hexagon, the six limbs. In the eight petals, the eight Bhairavas. In the eight filaments of the lotus, the eight Matrikas. In the bhupura Vatuka Natha etc.
Ghana, the eleventh Nitya
Meditation: Four arms, three eyes, delighting in nakedness, formidable, terrifying teeth, swelling rising breasts, black, blood streams from the corners of her mouth, she wears a girdle of dead men’s hands, and holds a sword, a shield, a trident and a club.
Mantra: Om Klim Om Ghanalaye Ghanalaye Hrim Hum Phat.
Attendants: The six limbs are in the six angles, the Bhairavas and the Matrikas are in the eight petals, and the guardians of the directions are in the bhupura.
Balaka, the twelfth Nitya
Meditation: Four arms, three eyes, intoxicated with wine, wearing a garland of skulls, naked, formidable, with rising swelling breasts, holding a sword and a head in her left hands and a skull bowl and the threatening finger in her right hands. Seated in a fortress of skulls, she is like ten million fires of dissolution or suns.
Mantra: Om Krim Hum Hrim Balaka Kali ati adbhute parakrame abhista siddhim me dehi Hum Phat Svaha.
Matra, the thirteenth Nitya
Meditation: Blue-black, smeared with blue paste, with four arms and three eyes, wearing a garland of skulls, seated on a corpse, fierce, holding a skull bowl, scissors, a sword and a severed head. This great Raudri roars terrifyingly.
Mantra: Om Krim Him Hum Aim 10 Mahamatre siddhim me dehi satvaram Hum Phat Svaha.
Mudra, the fourteenth Nitya
Meditation: Naked, the colour of a blue lotus, fierce, with three tawny eyes, four arms, roaring loudly, with a garland of heads, a girdle of hands, blood on her lips, holding a skull bowl and a knife, a sword and a shield.
Mantra: Om Krim Him Hum Prim Phrem Mudramba Mudrasiddhim me dehini bho jaganmudrasvarupini Hum Phat Svaha.
Attendants: In the triangle are Iccha, Jnana and Kriya Shaktis. Rajyada, Bhogada, Moksada, Jayada, Abhayada, Siddhida are in the hexagon. The eight Matrikas are in the eight petals, with the eight Bhairavas at their filaments. In the bhupura are Ganapa, the Yoginis, Ksetrapala and Vatuka Natha.
Mita, the fifteenth Nitya
Meditation: Red clothes, dishevelled hair, rising swelling breasts, beautiful buttocks, delighting in nakedness, terrifying, dark blue in colour, sitting on a corpse, wearing a garland of skulls, with four arms, three eyes, holding a sword and a severed head in her left hands and dispelling fear and granting boons with her right hands. She is like ten million fires of dissolution at the end of time, dwelling in the cremation ground.
Mantra: Om Krim Hum Hrim Aim Mite Paramite parakramaya Om Krim Hum Him Em So-aham Hum Phat Svaha.
Attendants: In the first triangle Kali, Karalini, Ghora. In the second, Vama, Jyestha, Raudrika. In the third, Iccha, Jnana, Kriya. In the first part Vartali, then Laghuvarahi, Svapnavarahi, in the fourth Tiraskarini. The six limbs in the hexagon, and the Matrikas in the eight petals, with the Lokapalas being in the bhupura.
In the series of the ten Mahavidyas or wisdom aspects of the Divine Mother, Kali comes first, for she represents the power of consciousness in its highest form. She is at once supreme power and ultimate reality, underscoring the fundamental Tantric teaching that the power of consciousness and consciousness itself are one and the same.
Kali appears to us in countless ways, but some aspects are more commonly encountered than other #Kramasystem of #Kashmir, she is said to have a succession of twelve forms, beginning with Guhyakali, the supreme mystery, the Absolute. The other eleven forms represent every subsequent level of awareness, all the way down to our ordinary, unenlightened state. From pure formlessness and throughout the countless forms she assumes, Kali is the sole reality. Mother is all, and all is Mother.
The earliest descriptions of Kali belong to the Puranas, and they place her on the battlefield. The Devimahatmya vividly depicts a scene with Kali and her associated goddesses ready to take on an army of demons. Here, Kali has emerged as the personified wrath of the Divine Mother Durga. She appears emaciated, with her dark flesh hanging loosely from her bones. Her sunken eyes glow red in their sockets. She is clad in a tiger’s skin and carries a skull-topped staff. A garland of human heads adorns her neck. Her gaping mouth shows her to be a fearsome, blood-thirsty deity. The battle culminates with the slaying of two demon generals, Canda and Munda, and this act earns her the name Chamundi.
In the next episode Chamundi takes on the demon Raktabija. His name means, “he whose seed is blood.” Whenever a drop of his blood falls upon the ground, another demon of equal size and strength springs up. In the battle, he sheds blood profusely until the world is teeming with Raktabijas. Just when the battle looks hopeless and the onlooking gods despair, Camunda roams the battlefield, avidly lapping up the blood and crushing the nascent demons between her gnashing teeth. Finally, drained of his last drop of blood, Raktabija topples lifeless to the ground.
On the surface this appears to be a grisly tale, but it symbolizes profound insight. Raktabija’s amazing replicative ability symbolizes the human mind’s ordinary state of awareness. The mind is constantly in motion, and one thought begets another in an endless succession. The mind rarely rests and is never fully concentrated. In the light of Patanjali’s Yogasutra, we can understand Chamundi as the power to restrain the mind’s endless modulations, to stop them altogether. When all mental activity (cittavritti) ceases, that state is called yoga: consciousness resting in its own infinite peace and bliss. In that state of ultimate absorption, represented by Chamundi’s imbibing of every drop of blood, the soul regains knowledge of its own original divinity. Chamundi, Kali’s battle scene represents the resorption of fragmented human awareness into transcendental wholeness.
Away from the battlefield Kali assumes more benign forms. As Dakshinakali, she is portrayed as young and beautiful, standing on the supine, ash-besmeared body of Siva, who looks up at her adoringly. Siva is absolute consciousness, ever blissful in its own glory. Kali is consciousness in motion—the overflowing joy that projects, sustains, and withdraws the universe. Consciousness and its power are one and the same reality.
With her lower right hand the four-armed Dakshinakali displays the varadamudra, the gesture of boon-giving. Her upper right hand makes the abhayamudra, reassuring us to have no fear. The upper left hand wields the bloodied sword of knowledge. This is the capacity we can call upon to cut through all appearances and perceive the underlying reality. It is the power of mental discrimination (viveka) essential to spiritual practice and growth. From Kali’s lower left hand dangles the freshly severed head of a demon. This represents the human ego—the small, false sense of individual selfhood that binds us to this world. It is our crippling limitation. Once it is out of the way, awareness expands to infinity. We become one with the Divine and are liberated.
Kali’s nakedness signifies her boundlessness. Nothing can contain her who is infinite. Her loose, flowing hair also represents freedom, in this case the freedom from social convention, from all the conditioning that has been imposed on us and that we impose on our own minds. Our true nature is unconditioned consciousness—nirguna caitanya.Another symbol of freedom can be found in the girdle of severed human arms that circles her waist. This represents the divine power to cut through the bonds of karma. It is the power inherent in our own consciousness—a freedom of choice in the moment that can also be taken as a sign of divine grace.
Around her neck Kali wears a necklace of skulls. All appearances to the contrary, this is a symbol of creative power. It is the varnamala, the garland of letters. Each skull represents a sound of the Sanskrit alphabet, a particular manifestation of energy. Physics tells us the same thing—that the universe is nothing but energy, vibrating at different frequencies and levels of intensity, and the result is this palpable world of name and form. The imagery of the skulls also reminds us that all created things pass away. Vibration is movement, and everything in the universe is constantly changing. Change is not possible except for time, and Kali is also time, the relentless devourer that in the end swallows up all things.
Kali’s iconography in its various forms invites deep contemplation, and that leads to ever-deepening insight. In general, we can say that all the dualities of life, the light and the dark, the beautiful and the fearsome, are united and reconciled in Kali. She represents supreme nonduality, for she is none other than Brahman. At the same time, the duality of this world is nothing other than her own self-expression.
Two incidents in the life of Sri Ramakrishna bear this out. As a young priest at Dakshinesvar, Ramakrishna developed an unbearable longing for the vision of Kali. One day, feeling he could stand it no longer, he seized the Mother’s sword from the wall in the shrine room, intending to end his life. Just then Kali revealed herself. In that moment the temple and all surroundings vanished, and Ramakrishna beheld only an endless, radiant ocean of consciousness. Feeling he was to be engulfed by the onrushing waves, he lost awareness of the outer world but continued to experience a steady flow of undiluted bliss. Kali had revealed herself as the Absolute. But she is also the relative. On another occasion in the same shrine room, Ramakrishna beheld the image, the altar, the worship vessels, the doorsill, the marble floor, and everything else as nothing but vibrating consciousness—even a cat, to whom he fed the Mother’s food offering! In that experience Kali revealed to him that it is she who has become everything.
From the Absolute to the relative and from the relative to the Absolute, Kali represents the power of transformation. For us, who wrongly think ourselves to be mere mortals, she holds out the promise of transformation from the human to the Divine.(references and notes-David Nelson- Praise of the Goddess,principles of thantra-sir john woodroof)